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63 Cards in this Set

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is the ability to influence a grouptoward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.

Leaders vs Management

Leaders: Challenge the status quo. ➢ Create visions of the future. ➢ Inspire organizational members to want toachieve the visions.

Management: Formulate detailed plans.➢ Create efficient organizational structures.➢ Oversee day-to-day operations.

Emotional Intelligence importance to leadership

without it, a person can have outstanding training,a highly analytical mind, a compelling vision, andan endless supply of terrific ideas, but still notmake a great leader

-With it: can sense others’ needs, listen to what followerssay (and don’t say), and read the reactions ofothers. • can effectively display and manages emotions, making it easier to influence the feelings offollowers

Trait theory of leadership

based around the personal traits( big 5) Emotional stability, Extroversion, Openness,Agreeableness, Conscientiousness

Trait vs Behavioral theories

Trait- born with it

Behavioral- can be trained to be a leader


incorporates strategies in which to lead, no one way is the best for every group or situation.

Fieldler contingency model

effective group performance depends on theproper match between the leader’s style and thedegree to which the situation gives control to theleader.

situational leadership theory

Successful leadership is achieved by selectingthe right leadership style, which is contingenton the level of the followers’ readiness.

Path Goal theory

extracts key elements from the OSU leadershipresearch on initiating structure and considerationand the expectancy theory of motivation. ➢ Derived from belief that effective leaders clarifythe path to help followers achieve work goals.

Leader participation model

relates leadership behavior and participation indecision making. ➢ Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the taskstructure.

Transactional leadership

The Ohio State studies, Fiedler’s model, path-goaltheory, and the leader participation model are allconcerned with transactional leaders. These kinds of leaders guide or motivate theirfollowers in the direction of established goals byclarifying role and task requirements.

Transformational leadership

leader is charged with identifying the needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of the group.

Personal power

comes from a individuals unique characteristics

Formal power

based on an individuals position in an organization

Personal vs Formal (which one works better)

Personal power: most effective and positively related to employees, satisfaction with supervision, organizational commitment, their performance.

Dependence: the things you control must be perceived as

important, scarce, no substitutes

Dependence and power

related, the more dependent someone is on you the more power you have

- power inversely related to alternative source of supply

Reasons for development of organizational politics

Need to influence decision making, goals, criteria or process

Soft Tactics

Soft tactics allow the person to be influenced with more latitude in deciding whether or not to accept the influence than do hard tactics.soft tactics are better for generating commitment and are perceived as more fair than hard tactics.

Hard Tactics

Hard influence tactics can place more strain on the relationship between the influencing person and the target, especially when the action was unwarranted. Better for getting immediate response.


a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about

Traditional view of conflict

all conflict is bad

Interactionist view of conflict

conflict can be good(is needed for improvement)

functional conflict: supports goals

dysfunctional conflict--> personal conflict bad

Conflict process

potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, outcomes

Stage 3 Intentions

intervene between people's perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. Have to infer the other's intent to know how to respond to his or her behavior.


seeks ones own interests to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on others


trying to fully satisfy the concerns of both parties


withdraw or supress the conflict, or ignore


party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponents interests above his or her own, making sacrifices


no winner or loser willing to ration the object of the conflict with incomplete satisfaction of both parties

Managing functional conflict

encourage open frank discussions, realize differences in opinions, emphasize shared interests

Distributive bargaining

decide how to divide up a fixed amount of resources, a win-lose situation.

integrative bargaining

negotiations that seeks one or more settlements that can create win-win solution(builds long-term relationships)

key challenge in organizations structure

design more flexible organizations

Boundaryless organizaiton

an org that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams

Org structure

· defines how job tasks are formally divided,grouped, and coordinated

Element of Organizational structure


Work Specialization

division of labor into separate activities

Chain of command

less relevant today because of technology(unbroken line of authority that extends from the top to bottom


grouping jobs together so common tasks can be coordinated

Span of Control

how many employees a manager can efficiently and effectively direct

Centralization and decentralization

degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization

-decisions with decentralization, low managers, closer to the problem can make decsions


-degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized

virtual organization

typically a small, core organization thatoutsources major business functions. ➢ Also referred to as a modular or networkorganization. ➢ It is highly centralized, with little or nodepartmentalization.

Organizational culture

a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations

Characteristics that capture essence of orgs culture

innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, stability


They reflect common problems, situations, or experiences that members face. defined by department designations and geographic separation

What role does culture have in organizations

Organizational cultures are not neutral in theirethical orientation, even when they are not openlypursuing ethical goals. ➢ Over time, the ethical work climate (EWC),or the shared concept of right and wrongbehavior in that workplace, develops ➢ This reflects the true values of the organizationand shapes the ethical decision making of itsmembers.

How do employees learn culture?

Stories, legends, myths about key peopleand events •What leaders pay attention to, measureand control •Dress and Appearance •Formal statements and company materials •Time and time consciousness • Relationships •Language and Communication •Work motivation and practices •Values and Norms Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

benefits of positive organizational culture

Case studies of specific workplaces demonstrate additional, industry-specific benefits, including improved track records on safety, higher patient/customer/employee Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. satisfaction, better quality job applicants, etc.

-rewarding more than punishing

-sparks creativity


Human Resources Management (HRM)● The process of managing human talent to achieve an organization’s objectives.

Why study HRM?

Staffing the organization, designing jobs and teams,developing skillful employees, identifying approachesfor improving their performance, and rewardingemployee successes are critical for business success. ● Great business plans, products and services can easilybe copied by your competitors. Great personnelcannot. ● HR management and programs are the conduit through which knowledge is developed and transferred among Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. employees.

Why study HR?

HR is critical to business strategy! ● HR is moving from administrative tasks to strategic partners. ● HR can partner with leadership to drive new products,services, M & A, enter new markets, etc. ● Human resources managers need an intimate understandingof their firms’ competitive business operations and strategies!

Human Resources Planning

Process of anticipating and making provisions for themovement (flow) of people into, within, and out of anorganization. – HRP is done to achieve the optimum use of the firm’s humanresources, so that it has the correct number and types of employees tmeet organizational goals.

Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning● Procedures for making decisions about the overall organization’s long-term goals.● Essentially the firms “roadmap.”

Strategic Goals of Compensation

ATTRACT, RETAIN,MOTIVATE ➢ HR must design a comp systemsthat achieves each of theseelements in alignment withstrategic plans, businessstrategy, and organizationalculture. MUST create an EVP: employeevalue proposition

What must be in allginment for HRM

· business strategy, HR strategy, HR programsand systems (remember the bullseye model)

Planned change

Intentional and goal oriented

- Improve the ability of the organization to adaptto changes in its environment. • Change employee behavior.

Unplanned change

requires reactionary response

Overcoming resistance to change

Education and Communication


Building support and commitment

Develop positive relationships

implementing changes fairly

manipulation and cooptation(buying off)

Selecting people who accept change

Coercion(direct threats or force on the resisters)

Organizational development

a collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic value, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being

-respect for people, trust and support, power equalization, confrontation, participation

Major sources of stress for individuals

My job

my finances



Managing stress

individual: An employee can take personal responsibility forreducing stress levels: ➢ Time-management techniques.➢ Increased physical exercise.➢ Relaxation training.➢ Expanded social support networks.

organizational: Task and role demands can be modified or changed.• Better employee selection and job placement.• Realistic goal-setting.• Redesign of jobs.• Increased employee involvement.• Improved organizational communication.• Employee sabbaticals.• Corporate wellness programs.