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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe erythropoesis
components of blood
Plasma – fluid portion
Formed elements
Erythrocytes – transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes – protect body
Platelets – clot blood
blood functions
Carry O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, salts, heat, hormones
Maintain normal pH
Maintain fluid volume
Prevent blood loss
Prevent infection
origins of blood cells
In embryo: yolk sac --> liver  spleen
After 7th month
Red marrow of flat bones
Spongy bone of epiphyses of femur, humerus
life cycle of RBC
features of hemoglobin
Carries 95% of O2 and 20% of CO2
Hb + O2 --> oxyhemoglobin
Hb + CO2 --> carbaminohemoglobin

Hb + CO --> carboxyhemoglobin
features of anemia
Hemoglobin deficiency due to
Too few RBCs
Too little Hb/RBC (hypochromic anemia)
RBCs too small in size
Abnormal Hb
features of leukocytes
Some leave blood vessels via diapedesis
Chemotaxis leads WBCs to damaged cells
Start inflammatory or immune responses
hemocytoblast differentiation
platelet developmental pathway
Thrombus = clot that forms abnormally in vessel
Embolus = thrombus or part of thrombus that breaks loose and is carried away by blood flow
features of blood types
Species specific
Determined by proteins (agglutinogens) present on RBC surface
Agglutinogens – proteins that cause immune reactions
Agglutinins (antibodies) cause foreign RBC to become sticky and clump together
Agglutination – the clumping of RBCs due to their becoming sticky. It is NOT the same as blood clotting (coagulation)
Rh factor
Rh+ people have the Rh protein

Rh- people do not have the Rh protein

Rh inherited separately from ABO blood type
features of erythroblastosis fetalis
Rh negative mother
Rh positive fetus
Occurs with second or subsequent pregnancy
Rapid RBC destruction liberates pigments  jaundice
Can result in hydrocephalus, miscarriage, or death of fetus
Immunoglobin Rho-GAM given to mother to prevent sensitization
blood clotting steps (diagram)
3 possible clinical consequences of failed clotting
Impaired liver function
features of Leukemias
cells remain unspecialized and mitotic. Suppress or impair normal bone marrow function