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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cartilage?
It is a specialized type of connective tissue
What does all cartilage consist of?
It consists of cells, fibers, and ground substance
What are the cells in cartilage called?
They are called chondrocytes, with chondro referring to cartilage
What are the three types of cartilage?
Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage
Which of those 3 are avascular?
Hyaline and elastic cartilage are avascular
What are the characteristics of hyaline cartilage?
It is grayish white in color, has a translucent-glassy appearance, and a rubbery consistency
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
It is found in the fetal skeleton, ventral ends of the ribs, some parts of the larynx (Adam's Apple), tracheal and bronchial rings, nose, and articular surfaces of the bones
Why is there no hyaline cartilage on skeletal preparations?
There is resin used to connect the ribs to the sternum
What does hyaline cartilage do to the tracheal and bronchial rings?
It holds them open
When you break your nose, what are you damaging?
Hyaline cartilage
What does hyaline cartilage form on the articular surfaces of the bones?
It forms the gliding surface
When staining hyaline cartilage with H & E, can you see chondrocytes?
What is the lacunae?
The space in which hyaline cartilage cells live
What is the hyaline matrix?
It is rigid and tough, and resists tearing
What does the hyaline matrix consist of?
It consists of collagen fibrils and ground substance
What type of collagen are collagen fibers?
Type 2
Why are collagen fibers invisible when you look at hyaline cartilage?
Because of their size and they have the same index of refraction as the ground subtance
What makes collagen fibrils?
What are the features of ground substance?
It is firm, but can be cut with a knife
What is ground substance made of?
It is made up of hyaluronic acid plus proteoglycans, consisting of chains of keratin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate
How are the proteoglycans bound to hyaluronic acid?
They are bound by link proteins
The proteoglycan has what kind of appearance in ground substance?
It looks like a bottle brush
What does hyaluronic acid do to ground substance?
It is highly hydrated as a result, and can bear a lot of weight
What is a functional use of this?
It is good for articulation of bones, like the leg bones for example
Why is much of the ground substance basophilic?
Because of the all the acid (sulfate groups) on the GAGS
What are the three zones of basophilicity?
The capsular matrix, territorial matrix, and interterritorial matrix
What type of collagen does the capsular matrix contain?
It contains almost exclusively type IV collagen
What does type IV collagen do?
It anchors the chondrocyte to the matrix by binding to the cell surface
What is this an exception to?
This is the exception to the previous statement that collagen fibrils in the hyaline matrix contain mostly type II
What is the prichondrium?
Dense irregular connective tissue with gradual transition into cartilage
Is there a difference between the appearance in the growing versus adult?
In the growing cartilage of the perichondrium, how many layers are there, and what are they?
It has 2 layers, with one being the inner chondrogenic layer and the other is the outer less cellular layer
What do you not see in adults?
You dont see the inner chondrogenic layers
What do you see instead?
You see the periosteum with no layers
What does the periochondrium contain?
It contains the blood vessels that nourish cartilage via diffusion
What can get through via diffusion?
Small molecules, but large molecules like antibodies are excluded
What does this mean about the immune system?
It means the immune system does not see the antigens on chondrocytes
What does this mean when cartilage grafts are being used?
It means they have to be donor matched
Describe the evidence about arthritis being exacerbated by erosion of the cartilage?
It would expose chondrocytes, and your body would see things it hasn't seen ebfore, and it triggers an immune response
Is there perichondrium on articular cartilage?
Why not?
Because it would interfere with smooth muscle movement
What are the 4 locations for elastic cartilage?
Certain parts of the larynx, epiglottis, external ear, and auditory tube
How is the structure of elastic cartilage similar to that of hyaline cartilage?
It has chondrocytes and type 2 collagen fibrils
How is it different?
When unstained it is yellow and more flexible
What does elastic cartilage contain a dense network of?
It contains a dense network of elastic fibers
Do they obscure anything as a result?
Yes, they obscure the ground substance
What is used to see the fibers clearly?
An elastic stain is used
What color do they appear?
They appear reddish brown, or pink
Is periochondrium present in elastic cartilage?
How does elastic cartilage receive nutrients?
In the same way as hyaline cartilage
Where is fibrocartilage found?
It is found where fibrous tissue is subjected to pressure or tension, such as intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis, and ligamentum teres of the femur
What parts of the intervertebral discs contain fibrocartilage?
Both the annulus and nucleus pulposus
Where does the ligamentum teres run?
It runs from the head of the femur to the socket
How can cells in fibrocartilage appear?
They can appear in rows or singly
How does cartilage develop?
It develops from mesenchyme
How do mesenchymal cells make cartilage?
Mesenchymal cells lose their connections to each other, pull in their processes and condense. Then they differentiate into chondroblasts, and secrete matrix around themselves (becoming trapped), which pushes them apart.
What are they called when they are surrounded by matrix?
They are called chondrocytes
What happens then?
The chondrocytes continue to divide, forming isogenous groups
Are cells of the same isogenous group different?
No, they are clones of the adjacent cell
What is interstitial growth?
Daughter cells grow apart by matrix production, which causes the entire area of cartilage to expand from within (by the matrix production)
What is oppositional growth?
The mesenchyme surrounding the cartilage condenses and forms the perichondrium
What do the cells nearest the cartilage do once they become chondroblasts in appositional growth?
They lay down cartilage on the surface of existing cartilage
What does this form?
It forms the chondrogenic layer in the perichondrium of young cartilage
In adults, what happens to this layer?
This layer consists of flattened cells with the potential to become chondrocytes
Does this ever occur in adults?
It does when there is an injury
Does cartilage repair itself?
Perichondrial cells can enlarge, proliferate, and fill in the defect with a mixture of cartilage and connective tissue (mostly the latter)
What is calcification?
It is a regressive change in cartilage, wherein there is a deposition of calcium sulfate and carbonate into the matrix
What is the result?
Cell death because nutrition cant diffuse through, making cartilage hard and brittle
Does this ever occur normally?
It occurs normal in bone formation (endochondral), but is abnormal in normal hyaline cartilage