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18 Cards in this Set

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How many temporal fenestrae do turtles have

Technically none but they possible could've had two and have lost them secondarily

In turtles which bones form the jaw articulation

articular and quadrate

What bone conveys vibrations to the inner ear

columella

What is the carapace of a turtle made of?

bony plates developed in the dermis which are fused to the ribs and neural arches of all 10 thoracic, 2 saccral and first caudal vertebra

What is the plastron of a turtle made of?

- dermal structure partly derived from abdominal ribs


- parts of the pectoral girdle are also incorporated into the plastron.


- Clavicles form the epiplastrons and the inter-clavicle is the entoplastron

Characteristics of the turtle pelvic girdle

- ventral to the ribs


- tri-radiate form


- elongated scapula with long acromion process and a long ventral coracoid process

Characteristics of the turtle pelvic girdle

In side neck turtles: girdle is fused


In retracting turtles: girdle is unfused

modern testundines 2 clades:

pleurodira (side neck turtles) bend neck laterally


Cryptodira (shell retracting) S-bend of neck

Crocodile apomorphic characteristics

- crescent shaped nostrils in small eminence at tip of snout


- ear openings hidden by flaps of tissue


- heavy, scaly skin on back strengthened by dermal bony plates

Skulls and skeletons of crocodiles

- diapsid


- conical teeth


- secondary bony palate involves maxilla, palatine and pterygoid


- 2 sacral vertebrae


- abdominal ribs present


- elongated scapula and coracoid



Two types of crocodiles (families)

True crocodiles (crocodylidae)


- narrower snouts than alligators and the large teeth of the lower jaw are visible when jaw is closed


Alligators and caimans (Alligatoridae)


- broad shovel shaped snouts and when the jaws are closed the teeth of the lower jaw fit into sockets within the upper jaw

Types of teeth? What are the crocodiles tooth type?

acrodont + pleurodont = loosely attached to jaw




theodont = deeply socketed




crocodiles have acrodont teeth

Bird main characteristics

- feathers


- single occipital condyle


- modified forelimb as wing


- furcula


- no teeth


- beaks


- quadrate/articular jaw articulation


- columella connects tympanum to inner ear


- heterocoelous (saddle shaped facets) cercival vertebrae



Types of birds

Paleognathae- flightless birds


Neognathae- ducks, geese etc


Neoaves- waterbirds


landbirds- mousebirds, owls etc



Bird skeleton characteristics (ribs and vertebral column)

- hollow bones with struts, larger bones are connected to the air sac system


- vertebral column - flexibility of neck due to saddle shaped facets


- rest is fairly rigid


- some taxa the anterior thoracic vertebrae are fused into a single mass to stabilise the anterior end of the body


- synsacrum: fused lumbar, sacral and anterior caudal vertebrae


- rest of caudal vertebrae form pygostyle

Bird skeleton characteristics (sternum and pectoral girdle)

- variable sternum structure (flying has a keel, flightless have reduced keel)


- scapulae is long and narrow and connected to sternum by the coracoids (strong and large)


- clavicle fused to form ferculum

Bird skeleton characteristics (wings and pectoral girdle)

- strong humerus


- large pneumatic foramen on the inner surface of the head


- radius more slender than ulna


- stout ulna with nobs on surface for secondary flight feathers


- two free carpals at the end of the radius and ulna




- illium extends anteriorly and posteriorly of the acetabulum and fuses with the synasacrum


- backwards rotated pubis

Bird skeleton characteristics (legs and feet)

- short femur


- distal end of tibia fuses with proximal tarsus bones to form tibiotarsus


- fibula reduced to splint


- distal row tarsals fuse with metatarsals to form tarsometatarsus. (only digits 2,3,4 involved)




- most birds have four toes


- digit 1 usually (sometimes 2 also) pointing backwards in perching birds