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29 Cards in this Set

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Why not use Xenarthra (endentata)?

sloths and armadillos have cheek teeth, anteaters are toothless, pangolins were thought to be but are not closely related to edentates.



considered polyphyletic therefore not used/accepted



O; Lipotyphla (insectivora)

moles, shrews, tenrecs, golden moles and hedgehogs


- cusped teeth for cutting worms and insects


- suggested non-monophyletic




considered polyphyletic therefore not used/accepted



Chiroptera (bats)

- true flying mammals


- reduced ulna, short first digit w/ claw


- remaining digits elongate and bear patagium (wing membrane)


- clavicle and scapula strong


- sternum with keel


- baculum present

Two orders of chiroptera and distinctions?

Flying foxes and insectivorous bats




- FF second digit of manus is relatively independant and bears a claw




- IB: second digit of the manus is relatively incorporated into the wing and lacks a claw

Primate adaptations for arboreal living

- sturdle clavicle


- forward orientation of orbits


- no more than 2 incisors nor 3 premolars on one side of either jaw

O. Primates: SO. Strepsirrhini (lemurs, bushbabies and lorises) distinction

- orbit is in open communication with temporal fossa

- orbit is in open communication with temporal fossa

O. Primates: SO. Haplorrhini (taisers, monkeys and apes)

- orbits completely cut off from temporal fossae by flanges from frontals, jugals and alisphenoids

- orbits completely cut off from temporal fossae by flanges from frontals, jugals and alisphenoids

O. Primates: SO. Haplorrhini parorders

Tarsii - Tasiers

Platyrrhini - New world monkeys (spider monkeys, howler monkets, marmosets)


Catarrhini - Old world monkeys (rhesus, baboons, guenon



Catarrhini skull and dentition characteristics

I 2/2 C 1/1 P 2/2 M 3/3


- last molar not reduced


- deflated bulla


- ectotympanic extended into a long, ossified, external auditory meatus


- tail never prehensile (grasping)


- nostrils close together

O. Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares and pika) dentition

I 2/1 C 0/0 P 3/2 M 2-3/3


- herbivorous dentition


- longitudinal groove


- second upper incisor is small and directly behind first


- fenestrated maxilla


- short bony palate

Differences between rabbits and rodents

- R: fenestrated maxilla


- R: lower jaw + upper jaw closer distance


- R: prominent + angular squamosal + jugal


- R: larger mandible for muscle attachment


- R: Groove on teeth

O. Rodentia dental characteristics and formula

- single pair of incisors in each jaw which grow persistently are covered with enamel on anterior surface only and are great for gnawing



I 1/1 C 0/0 P 2/1 M 3/3

Only family of rodents, two main groups (what are they and how is it distinguished)

Muridae




Hystericognathy and sciurognathy - arrangement of jaw muscles




H: porcupines, guinea pigs, capybaras, african mole rats


S: squirrels, mice, rats, beavers, chipmunks

How do rodent incisors stay sharp

Each component of the tooth (dentine, enamel etc) have different rates of wear. Dentine wears away quicker than enamel thus, due to the enamel only being in the front of the tooth and dentine being at the back the teeth are able to stay sharp

O. Carnivora characteristics

- 3rd incisors larger than others, especially in upper jaw


- 3 incisors on each side of lower jaw


- well developed canines


- carnassial teeth in last upper premolar and lower M1


- turbinals complicated (curved bone shelves in nose)


- two subgroups feliformia and caniformia

Difference of skulls from dogs and foxes

dog skull frontal bone is dome shaped whereas fox skulls have a cavity/basin shape

Reason for turbinate bones and fenestration

possibly for water conservation as turbinate is always moist it cools down the air meaning water retention

Difference between otarids and and phocids?

- otarids are eared seals and have external pinna


- otarids also have hindlimbs that can be brought forward under the body


- grooves behind their incisors


- otarids also have a post orbital process




- Phocids have no external pinna


- hindlimbs can't be brought forward

Purpose of hyoid arch in mammals?

provides support and attachment for muscles in the larynx below, tongue above, epiglottis and floor of mouth allowing wider range of movements.

O. Cetacea (whales) characteristics

- fused neck vertebrae


- elongated rostrum


- unfused tympanic and periotic to skull for sonar dampening


- streamlined bodies


- front limbs = fippers and no hindlimbs


- no external pinna


- artiodactyls

Cetacean subgroups and defining characteristics

Odontoceti (toothed whales) - homodont teeth


- maxilla spread backwards over frontals almost reaching supraoccipital


- nostrils, premaxilla and maxilla on dorsal of skull and aysymmetrical (forming blowhole)






Mysticeti (baleen whales) - no teeth, have baleen plates



O. Proboscidea (elephants, mammoths) characteristics

- nose extended into long trunk


- thurd upper incisor forms tusks


- large cheek teeth with transverse loops of enamel and dentine


- one functional cheek tooth at a time on each side


- graviportallimbs

What are the four stance types?

Plantigrade - full sole of foot eg. humans


graviportal - great weight adaptations eg. elephant fat pads


unguligrades - tips of the digits eg. horses


digitigrades - walks on digits or toes eg. birds

O. Sirenia (Dugongs, manatees and sea cows) characteristics

- heavy bones (particularly skull for diving)


- modified and unusual skull


- peg like flattened cheek teeth


- incisors form tusks in males


- small loose nasal bones


- streamlined bodies

Ungulate two groups?




What is the graviportal and cursorial stance in ungulates

Artiodactyls (even toed) and perissodactyls (odd- toed) 


graviportal: specifically for weight bearing. Short digits and a spreading foot in which side toes touch ground when standing eg. hippo, rhino


cursorial: specifically for fast running wh...

Artiodactyls (even toed) and perissodactyls (odd- toed)




graviportal: specifically for weight bearing. Short digits and a spreading foot in which side toes touch ground when standing eg. hippo, rhino




cursorial: specifically for fast running where some metapodials are long and fused into a single bone.

Perissodactyl (horses, tapirs and rhinos) characteristics and dentition formula

- middle digit (3) is larger than the others


- elongated facial region


- herbivorous




I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3


females do not have canines possibly due to tusk forming in males

Artiodactyl (pigs, hippos, camels, deer etc) characteristics

- main axis of the foot is between III and IV digits (in most only these two digits present)


- I digit always absent


- Herbivorous dentition


- no upper incisors in most


- horns or antlers may be present



Three families of perissodactyla

Equidae (horses and zebras) - only functional digit = III 
- 3rd metapodial is elongated and strong (cannon bone) 
- II and IV metapodials reduced to splints




Tapiridae (tapirs) - 3 toes front, 4 toes back
- small trunk


Rhinocerotidae (rhinos...

Equidae (horses and zebras) - only functional digit = III


- 3rd metapodial is elongated and strong (cannon bone)


- II and IV metapodials reduced to splints






Tapiridae (tapirs) - 3 toes front, 4 toes back


- small trunk




Rhinocerotidae (rhinos) - horn on snout with no bony core

Six families of artiodactyla

Suidae (pigs) - upper canines = curving tusks




Hippopotamidae - four toes on each foot




Camelidae - only upper I/3 present in adults


- canines present


- 3rd and 4th metapodials fused for most strength but seperated distally


- digitigrade stance




Cervidae (deer, elk) - no upper incisors


- lower canine present but incisiform


- cannon bone with toes on 2 + 5


- antlers




Girrafidae - no upper canines or incisors


- horns


- extended neck vertebrae


- cannon bones but no toes on 2 and 5




Bovidae (cattle, sheep) - no upper canines or incisors


- lower canines incisiform


- cannon bones


horns formed as outgrowths of frontals