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43 Cards in this Set

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Anton Von Leeuwenhoek?

First to use the microscope, didn't know the organisms in pond water were bacteria.

Robert Hooke?

Examined cork slices under microscope called box-like structures cells; it stuck, although they were dead cells

Matthias Schleiden?

All plants are made of cells

Theodor Schwann?

All animals are made of cells

Rudolf Vrichow?

All new cells arise only from existing cells.

Cell Theory?

1. All living things are made of cells.


2. Cells are the basic unit of structure of cells function.


3. New cells are produced by existing cells

3

What does the shape determine?

The function of the cell.

They range in size from ___ meters to ___ micrometers.

2, 2

Cells that look alike group together in a mass called a ________.

Tissue

Prokaryotic Cell?

-no nucleus (has DNA)


-no membrane (bound organelles)


-2 kingdoms: Archeabacteria, and Eubacteria.

Eukaryotic Cell?

-membrane bound nucleus


-membrane bound organelles


-4 kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae, animalia

All cells must have: _________, ____ ____________, ________ ________, _____________.

Cytoplasm, cell membrane, genetic material, ribosomes

Plant cells?

Cell wall, large vacuole, prokaryotic, photosynthesis

Animal cells?

No cell wall, no vacuole, eukaryotic, lysosomes used for waste

Archebacteria? And Eubacteria?

A: found in harsh environments


E: most bacteria fit into this

Multicellular cells...

Consists of more than one cell and have several organ systems

What are the parts of bacteria?

Prokaryote, unicellular, singular~circular, chromosome, cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, flagella or cilia, some are surrounded by a capsule.

Bacterial Shapes?

1. Cocci-round


2. Spirilla-spiral


3. Bacilli-rod

Bacteria Arrangements?

1. Diplo- pair


2. Staphylo-cluster


3. Strepto-chain

Bacteria is important for...

Food production, nitrogen fixation, decomposer, digestion, medicine.

Antibiotics have their own mode of ______ specific to how the drug inhibits or destroys bacteria.

Action

From Antibiotics:


i.


ii.


iii.

1. They destroy cell walls and cause cells to burst


2. Inhibits cells ability to make proteins


3. Inhibits cells ability to replicate DNA.

They aren't living cause they cannot store not create ________ and also, they cannot ____________ outside of a host cell.

Energy


Reproduce

Lytic Cycle?

Reproduction occurs, cells burst

Cytoplasm?

Transparent colloid that surrounds the organelles, mostly water (like jello); is in constant motion called "cytoplasmic streaming"

What is this?

The viral reproduction (lytic and lysogenic)

Endoplasmic Reticulum?

-folded sacs and tunnels used as a transport system


-"Rough" is covered in ribosomes; functions in protein transport


-"Smooth ER" has no ribosomes; functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism and substance detoxification.

Golgi Body? (Complex, Apparatus)

- packages cell products for release; these packages travels to the plasma membrane and the contents are ejected to the outside of the cell.

Mitochondria?

ATP ( the high-energy molecule) is made here using glucose; active cells such as muscles have thousands of mitochondria.

Lysosomes?

-small and spherical bodies which contains hydrolytic enzymes for digestion of old cells or waste or foreign particles

Cytoskeleton?

-protein structures in internal framework that determines cell shape, supports other organelles, and provides for various types of cellular movements.

Cilli or Flagella?

"Hairs" or "tail" used for locomotion.

Nucleus?


Nuclear Envelope?


Nucleolus?

Nucleus: Controls the center of the cell; contains DNA and controls cell division.


Nuclear Envelope: membrane that surrounds the nucleus and contains pores for transport of materials outside of the nucleus.


Nucleolus: darkly stained area of nucleus, ribosomes are made here

Centrioles?

They are not rod shaped bodies that lie right angles to each other; made up of fine microtubules; during cell division they direct the formation of my mitotic spindle fibers.

Lysogenic Cycle?

Reproduction doesn't immediately occur (dormancy)

Vacuoles?

Stores water, nutrients, etc.

What is the "field of view"?

The diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking into a microscope

If 50x was the magnification... What would be the total magnification?

500x

Cytoskeleton?

-protein structures in internal framework that determines cell shape, supports other organelles, and provides for various types of cellular movements.

Cilli or Flagella?

"Hairs" or "tail" used for locomotion.

Nucleus?


Nuclear Envelope?


Nucleolus?

Nucleus: Controls the center of the cell; contains DNA and controls cell division.


Nuclear Envelope: membrane that surrounds the nucleus and contains pores for transport of materials outside of the nucleus.


Nucleolus: darkly stained area of nucleus, ribosomes are made here

Centrioles?

They are not rod shaped bodies that lie right angles to each other; made up of fine microtubules; during cell division they direct the formation of my mitotic spindle fibers.

Vacuoles?

Stores water, nutrients, etc.