• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

717 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Darwin's Two Observations

1. Members of a population vary in their inherited traits.

2. all species can produce more offspring than their environment can support, and many of these offspring fail t survive and reproduce.


Traits shared by common descent from a common ancestor

Fossil Record

shows the evolutionary changes that have occurred in different groups of organisms


evidence from the geographic(spatial) distributions of species.


natural selection can cause similar traits to appear in unrelated groups. this is termed CONVERGENT evolution.


group of interbreeding individuals in space and time.(individuals of the same species)


result of random processes. important in small populations.


gene flow between pops. can pring new alleles and thus traits.

gene flow

the transfer of alleles into or out of a pop due to the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes.


the process by which a species arises from an ancestral species

biological species concept

a species is a group of pops whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable offspring but do not produce fertile offspring with members of other groups.

allopatric speciation

gene flow is interrupted when a pop is divided into geographically isolated subpops.

sympatric speciation

rare. occurs within a pop, gene flow is reduced btw individuals by such factors as sexual selection and habitat differentiation.


how organisms are named and classified.

binomial nomenclature

the two part format of the scientific name for living organisms.

the order of hierarchical classification

domain, kingdom, phlyum, class, order, family, genus, species.


the evolutionary history of a species or group of species. based on shared HOMOLOGIES

shared ancestral characters

homologies shared with distant ancestors. ex: mammals have vertebrae and jaws

derived characters

homologies that are evolutionary novelties of particular clades. ex: mammals have hair and mammary glands. we rely on this to infer evolutionary relationships


split into archaea and bacteria. give info about original forms of life. tells us about evolutionary transition to eukaryotes.

the 3 shapes of prokaryotes.

cocci, bacilli, spiral. all surrounded by cell wall composed of PEPTIDOGLYCAN(sugars linked by proteins).


simple walls with a lot of peptidoglycan. stains purple.


complex, outer membrane with less peptidoglycan. tends to be more toxic. stains pink.


sticky coat of polysaccharide or protein


attachment pili. proteinaceous spines.


actively moving toward or away from stimulus. positive phototaxis: moving towards light.


resting state of prokaryote locomotion. can remain dormant but viable for centuries.


do not have a nucleus. has a nucleoid region. may have accessory dna...plasmids(replicate indep. of chromosome).

ways of recombination in prokaryotes

transformation- pick up DNA from environ.

transduction- viruses(phages) carry bacterial DNA

conjugation- one way transfer of DNA

horizontal gene transfer- recombination btw species.

conjugation process

donor and receiver connected by SEX PILUS(mating bridge). F PLASMIDS is passed (f+ to F- site), which carries the F FACTOR and the plasmid genes.

Hfr cell: F factor on chromosome: high frequency recomb. chromosome passed and recombined.


energy source: light

carbon source: CO2, HCO3 or related compound


energy source: inorganic chemicals(NH3, Fe2)

carbon source: CO2 HCO3 or related compoud


energy source: light

carbon source: organic compounds


energy source: organic compounds

carbon source: organic compounds


proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms


are lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane for gram negative bacteria. are only release when the bacteria dies and the cell wall breaks down.

types of symbiosis

mutualism(both benefit)

commensalism(one benefits as other remains the same)

parasitism(one benefits as one is harmed)

r plasmids

have genes for enzymes that destroy antibiotics. increasingly common due to selection


using bacteria to breakdown sewage, chemical spills, etc.

genetic engineering

use cellular machinery to make chemicals we can use such as vitamins and antibiotics.

4 major clades of archaea

extremophiles-lovers of extreme conditions

halophiles- high saline and salt environ.

thermophiles- high temp environ.

methanogens- use CO2 and H2, species in anaerobic marshes. produces energy and methane waste.


single celled eukaryotes (mostly). primary and secondary endosymbiosis.have contractile vacuoles to expel water. can be autotrophs, heterotrophs, or mixotrophs.


way in which eukaryotes arose.


in secondary endosymbiosis. acquired by engulfing photsynthetic eukaryote. proof with NUCLEOMORPH (remnant of eukaryote genome within 3rd membrane).

four main protist lineages


alveolates, stramenopiles, rhiziaria (SAR)




protist lineage. mostly parasitic. most are flagellated. broken down into DIPLOMONADS + PARABASALIDS, and then EUGLENOZOANS.


mostly free living mixotrophs. in the excavates lineage and euglenozoans branch.


free living predators and parasites. in the excavates lineage and eulenozoans branch.


protist lineage. hairy flagella. consist of DIATOMS, GOLDEN ALGAE, and BROWN ALGAE.


stramenopiles lineage. photosynthetic algae, with silica(glass) wall around cell.

golden algae

stramenopiles lineage.unicelluar or colonial mixotrophs. many species form protective cysts that can survive for decades.

brown algae

stramenopiles lineage. all multicelluar seaweeds and kelp.


protist lineage. grouped together based upon shared presence of alveoli beneath the cell membrane. Lineages are CILIATES, APICOMPLEXANS, and DINOFLAGELLATES.


alveolate lineage. cell covered in many short cilia rather than few long flagella.


alveolate lineage. parasites with complex life cycles. ex: plasmodium, which causes malaria.


alveolate lineage. cellulose plates, with 2 flagella in groves. can cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.


protist lineage. crimson tide. causes crimson tide due to high concentrations of carotenoids.


protist lineage. amoeboid pseudopodia: cytoplasmic for locomotion, prey, capture. made up of FORAMINIFERANS, RADIOLARIANS, and CERCAZOANS.


lineage of rhizarians. shell of calcium carbonate.


lineage of rhizarians. shell of silica, planktonic


lineage of rhizarians. most are parasites and predators. most important consumers of bacteria in aquatic and soil ecosystems.


lineage of protists. includes the plants and related algae. what we study most in this class. consists of RED ALGAE, GREEN ALGAE, CHLOROPHYTES, AND CHAROPHYCEANS( and land plants)


lineage of protists. composed of two major groups, based upon general dna. includes AMOEBOZOANS(slime molds), OPISTHOKONTS(unicellular and mulitcellular flagellate heterotrophs)(including fungi and animals)

ecological role of dinoflagellates

live in tissues of organisms in coral reefs, including coral and giant clams.

ecological role of parabasalids

symbionts in termite guts to break down cellulose.

alternations of generations

each generation gives rise to the other.


cell walls of cellulose

evolved from single celled CHAROPHYTES

kingdom plantae= Embryophytes

key features of plants

alternation of generations

sporopollenin walled spores made in sporangia

multicellular gametangia

apical meristems(areas of growth on shoot and root tips)


what makes the walls of plant spores tough and resistant to harsh environments.


specialized pores that allow exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen btw the atmosphere and the plant

vascular tissue

specialized cells that transport water, nutrients, etc.


non-vascular plants. liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. dominated by gametophyte but with prominent sporophyte.


one cell thick. produced by spores by germination.

in bryophytes

sperm must swim through water to fertilize eggs in which plants? also, the sporophytes in this plant are dependant on parental gametophytes.


capsule on a stalk. opens via peristome. releases spores gradually: spread by wind.


modified leaves bearing sporangia in vascular plants.

seedless vascular plants (ferns)

sporangia organized into sori on the sporophylls.

sporophyte stage larger than gametophyte stage.

sporophyte not dependent upon gametophyte.

leaves, roots, vascular tissue(xylem, phloem).

the two extant phyla of seedless vascular plants

lycophyta(more ancient)

pterophyta(horsetails, ferns, more closely related to vascular plants).

they formed the first forests.


multicelluar heterotrophs(absorb nutrients without ingestion unlike animals)

can be parasitic or mutualistic.

secretes enzymes that breakdown compounds.

single celled is yeast. multicelled has filaments called hyphae.

cell structure of fungi

filaments form masses: mycelia, increase surface area for uptake.

cell wall of chitin. divided by septa and undivided, coenocytic fungi.


the network of tiny filaments in fungi that make up the body.


the hyphae in fungi is separated by this. generally has large pores to allow ribosomes, mitochondria,a and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell


fungal hyphae form and interwoven mass that infiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds.


some fungal species have specialized hyphae in which the fungi use to extract nutrients from or exchange nutrients with their host plants.


mutualism with roots. fungi provides phosphorus, other nutrients, plant provides carbohydrates. all vascular plants have this.


type of mycorrhizae. form sheaths around roots. and typically grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex.

arbuscular mycorrhizae

extend branching hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane. haustoria.

ways of sexual reproduction in fungi

plasmogamy: fusion of cytoplasm

heterokaryon/dikaryon: 2 parental nuclei in 1 cytoplast( n+n )

karyogamy: fusion of nuclei (2n). spores(n) produced by meiosis.


where fungi evolved from. furthermore, the opisthokonts.


the clade in which there is the most fungal diversity. aslo called sac fungi, members of this group are common to many marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. the defining feature is the production of spores (asci) during their sexual stage, most develop fruiting bodies, called ascocarps. they can also produce asexually by producing spores called conidia.


the clade with the 2nd highest fungal diversity. important as decomposers. basidium(a cell in which karyogamy occurs, followed immediately by meiosis). reproduce sexually with basidiocarps, which are commonly called mushrooms.


harmful fungi. the general term for an infection in an animal by a fungal parasite. ex: ringworm, athletes foot.


a symbiotic association btw a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae.


fungi or bacteria that live inside leaves or other plant parts without causing harm.

tow types of seed plants


angiosperms( 90% of the total plants)(flowering plants)

seedless plants

these plants are homosporous: which produce one kind of spore that usually gives irse to a bisexual gametophyte.

seed plants

these plants are heterosporous: which produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes, and microsporangia produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes. each megasporangium has one megasport, as each microsporangium has many microspores.


layer of sporophyte tissue. envelops and protects the megasporangium. gymnosperms are surrounded by one, as angiosperms usually have 2.


embryo+food supply in protective coat, desiccation resistant, long dispersal distance.

ovules and pollen. WATER NOT NEEDED.

seedless plants

flagellated sperm swim from male gametophyte(antheridium) to female gametophyte(archegonium).

seed plants

tiny male gametophyte transported to female gametophyte. microspore develops into pollen grain( male gametophyte in sporopollenin coat )

Pollination: transport by wind or animal to femal ovule.

what does an ovule consist of in gymnosperm?


fertilization of female gametophyte in gymnosperm.

sperm transported via pollen tube through micropyle. fertilization occurs and megaspore turns into female gametophyte, which produces the egg.


have seeds, flowers, and fruit.


sex organs made up of up to 4 rings of specialized leaves.

sepals, petals, stamens, carpels. sepals and petals are sterile as stamens(male part) and carpels(female part, key feature in determining angiosperms from gymnosperms) are fertile.


mature OVARY. variation in form: fleshy, dry, ect. aid in dispersal: can be carried by animals.


male flower-parts. anthers on filaments; produce pollen.


female flower part, produce female gametophytes. container in which seeds are enclosed.

sticky stigma binds pollen; style connects it to ovary(1+ovules).

complete vs incomplete flowers

flowers with all four organs vs flowers that lack one or more of these organs. ex: some lack stamens and some lack carpels.

angiosperm life cycle

female gametophyte has large central cell with 2 nuclei ( n+n ).

male gametophyte (pollen) has two haploid cells (generative and tube cells).

pollen adheres to stigma of carpal, pollen tube grows down within the style of carpal.

tube penetrates through the micropyle and discharges two sperm cells into female gametophyte(embryo sac). food supply for the seed.

pollen releases 2 sperm. 1 sperm fertilizes embryo, 1 fuses with 2 nuclei in central cell resulting in ENDOSPERM(3n).

double fertilization

in angiosperm life cycle. one fertilization event produces a zygote and the other produces a triploid cell, which is unique to angiosperms.


is the food supply for the seed.

cross pollination

egg and sperm usually from different plants

generative cell

male gametophyte has 2 haploid cell in angiosperms. this cell divides and forms 2 sperm.

tube cell

male gametophyte has 2 haploid cells in angiosperms. this cell produces a pollen tube.

co evolution

animals are dependent on plants and vice versa. this of insects and flowering plants may explain their great diversity.

vegetative growth

two main systems being root system and shoot system.


main organs of photosynthesis

composed of blade and petiole(stalk)

veins: vascular tissue of these

conifer needles are in this group

can be modified for support, protection, etc.


anchor, absorb minerals and water, store carbohydrates. two main types.


main vertical root from primary root, many lateral roots. good for tall plants.

fibrous root

no main root; lots of little branches; small plants

root hairs

increase surface area for absorption. extenstions of root epithelial(dermal) cells many diff kinds of modified roots to serve specialized purposes.

adventitious roots

root tissue emanating from stems or leaves (shoot system)

shoot system

functions above ground. reproduction and photosynthesis. stems, leaves, flowers.


grow to increase the above ground volume occupied by branching thus facilitates dispersal of pollen and fruit; orients the plant in a way that maximized photosynthesis.

stem parts

alternating nodes (where leaves attach)

internodes (stem segments btw nodes)

primary growth via apical bud, with branches formed by axillary buds.

apical dominance

axillary bud growth inhibited by proximity of apical bud. stems may be modified for storage, asexual reproduction, etc.


part of the shoot system, but involved with reproductive growth as opposed to vegetative growth

tissue systems

plants are made up of three __ __ which are continuous throughout the organ systems of the plant

dermal tissue system

part of tissue system. external protective covering, first line of defense. epidermis with waxy cuticle.

periderm: protective outer tissue of woody plants

vascular tissue system

part of tissue system. internal transport btw shoot and root systems. physical support. xylem, phloem, stele.


vascular tissue system component. transports water+minerals from roots up to the shoots


vascular tissue system component. transports sugars from where they are made(leaves) to where they are needed(flowers, fruits, roots, etc.)


xylem+phloem. vascular tissue system component. arrangement varies in roots(cylinder) and shoots(bundles)

ground tissue system

part of tissue system. various tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal; specialized, responsible for metabolic functions.

cortex: btw vascular tissue and dermal tissue

pith: w/in vascular tissue

determinate vs indeterminate

vertebrate growth is generally ___. grow is limited to embryonic/juvenile phase.

plant growth is generally __. made up of embryonic, juvenile, and adult organs. can keep growing and living until killed.


complete life cycles in 1 or 2 years

perennials: can live for years


perpetually embryonic tissue. can differentiate into other cell types.

what makes indeterminate growth possible.

two types

apical meristems

responsible for primary growth(increase in length) in the tips of roots and the apical and axillary buds of shoots. most growth in herbaceous plants. located behind the root cap: protects tip against soil, secretes lubricant

lateral meristems

cause secondary growth(increase in girth) in woody plants

cyclinders of cells that extend through stems and roots.

vascular cambium: adds 2 degrees vascular tissue-xylem

cork cambium: replaces epidermis w/ periderm

stem cells, derivatives

____ are new cells that retain role of cell division in meristems. ___ cells divide and differentiate into different kinds of tissues, it is from these cells that all plant tissues arise.

3 diff zones of development; older cells further from the tip

1. zone of cell division: meristem and immediate derivatives

2. zone of elongation: cells elongate, pushing tip forward up to 10x original length

3. zone of differentiation: cells mature to specialized cell types


outer most layer of cells. lateral roots originate from the ___. keeps vascular cylinders continuous

axillary bud meristems

areas of meristem left behind by leaf primordia

lateral stems

arise from axillary bud meristems, not the vascular tissue as with lateral roots




__ tissue: upper and lower epidermis. stomata. guard cells.

__ tissue: mesophyll=photosynthetic cells(space btw mesophyll allows for exchanges of gas)

__ tissue: branches throughout mesophyll; continuous w/ stem vascular tissue. surrounded by protective bundle sheath.


specific tissues/organs must develop at specific places(pattern formation)


root to shoot axis. changes in this tells determines the fate of the cells.


how leaves arranged on stem. determines light capture.


way of transport of water and solutes through plants. connected spaces outside living cells. cells walls open mesh of cellulose. inside of dead tracheids and vessels( xylem ).


way of transport of water and solutes through plants. connected spaces inside of cells. must get through selective barrier (plasma membrane). cells connected by plasmodesmata. includes phloem.


way of transport of water and solutes through plants. repeatedly crossing cell membranes. moving between the apoplast and the symplast.


living part of the cell, including plasma membrane, that presses against the cell wall, creating turgor pressure. making pressure potential.


transport proteins for water. water moves through plant membrane faster than just diffusion.

bulk flow

movement of fluid by pressure, indep. of solute. larger diameter xylem and phloem.

casparian strip

waxy barrier that blocks apoplastic route; solutes must go through selective membranes of endodermis and enter symplast. from here, endodermis and living vascular cells export minerals to the xylem.


movement of photosynthetic products in the phloem sap through sieve tubes.


two cotyledons. seeds vary in cotyledon development.

hypocotyl: lower part, connects to radical(embryonic root)

epicotyl: upper part, with immature leaves(embryonic shoot)


have only one cotyledon=scutellum

coleoptile: sheath surrounding embryonic shoot

coleorhiza: sheath protects embryonic root


germination begins with the uptake of water, ___.

causes expansion, seed coat ruptures.


radical emerges first, then hypocotyl.

hypocotyl leads epicotyl and cotyledons(seed leaves).


coleoptile(protects shoot) leads way up. shoot grows through.


ovary wall becomes the __. thickened wall of fruit; other fruit parts shed.

simple fruits

from single or multiple fused carpels

aggregate fruits

from flowers with multiple flowers in an inflorescence. ovary walls fuse.

accessory fruits

incorporate other floral parts besides the ovaries

abiotic vs biotic

wind and water dispersed vs lots of fruits dispersed by animals


parent plant severed leads to two individuals. embryonic meristems facilitate to asexual reproduction by this.


asexual reproduction. seeds produced by mitosis; no fertilization. ex: dandelions


one sex or the other. chronologically or physically separate male and female parts


modifications of growth form for the dark. ex: a potato in a cupboard or buried.

no leaves: a waste in the dark, and would probably get wrecked

no chlorophyll

energy put into elongation


switch to typical above-ground morphology

green leaves "greening", roots.


etiolation and de-etiolation are mediated by these. a pigment that plants use to detect light.


plant horomones developed from studies of __ in oat seedlings.


hormone in plant cell responses. isolated to elongate dark-side. any compound that promotes elongation of shoots; controls pattern formation


hormone in plant cells. works with auxin to promote division and differentiation. stimulates cytokinesis.

controls apical dominance

slow aging of organs (inhibit protein breakdown)


hormone in plant cells that are produced in response to stress, including mechanical pressure; also in fruit and cells that die at maturity.

1) triple response (curves stem)

2) senescence (programmed death)

3) leaf abscission (leaf loss when water low)

4) fruit ripening (increase sugar, cell walls broken)


change shape in response to light


positive __ is growth towards light.


red light is especially important for seed germination, shading, activates __.


a physiological response to day and night length, influences flowering time.


have statoliths to determine direction of gravity.


plants respond to touch. rubbing plants regularly inhibits growth.


hollow ball of cells. internal cavity is a blastocoel


the zygote turns into a gastrula and the performs __, which is the invagination of the blastopore to form the beginning of the gut.

direct development

offspring looks like a little version of the parent. ex: mammals, some insects.

indirect development

young offspring (larvae) morphologically and ecologically diff than adult. must go through metamorphosis. ex: butterflies, some mollusks


animals most closely related to colonial __ protists. similar to choanocytes of sponges.

ediacaran biota

earliest large animal fossils

oder of eras

Paleozoic Era (Cambrian explosion) ended with extinction (end-permian extinction)

Mesozoic Era (age of dinosaurs) ended with wipeout (end cretaceous extinction)

Cenozoic Era (modern era) humans.


have specific body plans as plants do not

HOX gene

animal development under control of this gene.

aspects of body plans that provide insight into early animal evolution


tissue organization

body cavities

sessile or planktonic

animals that sit in one place or drift in water. usually have radial symmetry

bilaterlly symmetrical

the symmetry of animals with dorsal, ventral, anterior, and posterior end.

cephalization: having a front end (head) typical of animals that move under own power.


___ leads to tissue organization. asymmetrical animals lack tissues therefor don't have this. radial and bilateral symmetrical animals do.


embryonic gut in result of gastrulation


tissue lining gut in result of gastrulation


outer layer of cells in the nervous system in result of gastrulation.


radially symmetrical ___: only two tissue types.

basically a fancy gastrula

triploblasts, mesoderm

bilateral __ have a third germ layer: __.

forms all other organs btw gut and outer surface such as muscles, gonads, circulatory system.


in triploblastic animals. fluid-filled body cavity.


in triploblastic animals. body cavity lined with mesoderm.


in triploblastic animals. not completely lined with mesoderm, includes tissue derived from endoderm.


in triploblastic animals. lack a body cavity fluid filled body cavity serves as a hydrostatic skeleton to antagonize muscles.


type of coelomate.

coelem forms solid masses of mesoderm; expand to filled blastocoel.

zygote cleavage is determinate spiral cleavage. gut develop: blastopore becomes the mouth


type of coelomate.

mesoderm buds of endoderm of archenteron. zygote cleavage is indeterminate radial cleavage.

gut development: blastopore becomes anus


group in which most animals belong to

major groups of animal phyla


cnidaria=jellyfish, sea anemones, coral

lophotrochozoa= flatworms, mollusks, segmented worms.

ecdysozoa=arthropods, nematodes

deuterostomia=echinoderms, chordates


phylum __. fancy gastrulas. radially symmetrical diploblasts.

two phases: medusa (mouth down, swimming, sexual stage). polyp (mouth up, sedentary, asexual stage).

no mesoderm, so no true muscles

4 classes of phylum cnidaria





3 main groups of phyla around before the cambrian explosion. triploblastic. bilateral symmetry.





one group of bilaterians. contains annelida, mollusca, ectoprocta, rotifera, platyhelminthes, brachiopoda.


flatworms. acoelomates. trochophore type larvae (ciliated larvae). lack through-gut so it has gastrovascular cavity. unlike cnidarians, has organs to maintain osmotic balance.

protonephridia with cells called flame bulbs

mostly hermaphroditic.


include taxa such as clams, snails, octopuses. 8 classes: polyplacophora, gastropoda, bivalvia, cephalopoda.

shell (except octopus)



mantle cavity

gonochoristic (separate sexes)


inderterminate radial cleavage, blastopore becomes anus. suspension feeders. ex: ectoprocta, brachiopoda.


arthropods, nematodes. all taxa molt their outer covering (go through ecdysis)


type of ecdysozoa. covered by a jointed skeleton. chitin. gonochoristic


type of ecdysozoa. long and cylindrical but unsegmented. diverse round worms.


echinoderms, chordates. triploblastic, bilateral symmetry. vertebrates and invertebrates united in this one. two phyla:

echinodermata (starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars)

chordata (vertebrates(fish, frogs,chickens, apes) and related invertebrates)


part of deuterostomia. spiny skin. tube feet. broadcast spawning reproduction


deuterostomia part. all share certain traits:

Notochord (long flexible rod of cells)

hollow dorsal nerve cord (central nervous system)

pharyngeal slits (pharynx, gills, jaws)

post-anal tail (muscular tail extends past anus)

chordates that lack vertebrae


tunicates (suspension feeders)

2 clades of jawless vertebrates


modern lampreys


lacked jaws. internal skeleton of cartilage. mineralized dental hooks


vertebrate with jaws (gnathostomes). unmineralized skeletons. buoyancy by storing oil in its liver.


"four legs" amphibians, reptiles, including birds and mammals. evolved from sarcopterygians.


oldest tetrapod lineage.


tetrapods with water-proof eggs. major innovation that got tetrapods fully on to land

extant clades:

1)reptiles (diapsids)

2)mammals (synapsids)


mammals are __ amniotes.


extant clade of mammals. egg-laying mammals; only in australia; no nipples but milk


extant clade of mammals. mammals with a pouch. only in australia, north and south america. ex: possum


extant clade of mammals. placental mammals. global. HUMANS.


20 extince species closely related to humans and chimps diverged from a common ancestor. share 99% DNA.


biological function; how things work

epithelial tissue

epithelium. closely packed cells lining surfaces. barrier against injury, infection, dehydration.

simple squamous

type of epithelial tissue. thin and leaky.

found: diffusion surfaces like blood vessels, lungs


type of epithelial tissue. tight cell-cell junctions.

found: where absorption is important. line intestines.

stratified squamous

type of epithelial tissue. layers of cells.

found: sloughed off as new cells arise. line abraded surfaces, mouth, vagina.

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

type of epithelial tissue. columnar cells w/ varying height of cilia;

found: sweep mucus. esophogous.


type of epithelial tissue. built for secretion.

found: glands, kidneys.

connective tissue

bind and support other tissues of the body. provide support matrix for organs.

loose connective tissue

connective tissue. binds epithelium, holds organs in place.

collagen and elastin


connective tissue. collagen fibers in protein-carbohydrate matrix; secreted by chondrocytes.

fibrous connective tissue

connective tissue. dense collagen fibers; tendons (muscle to bone) and ligaments (bone to bone)

adipose tissue

connective tissue. fat for storage, cushioning, and insulation.


connective tissue. liquid matrix composed of plasma, red and white blood cells, and platelets.

bone osteoblasts

connective tissue. secrete collagen matrix that becomes mineralized.

muscle and nervous

___ and ___ tissue are the basis of animal behavior.

nervous tissue

tissue that converts external stimuli to electronic impulses, conduct impulses.


associated cells that protect and nourish neurons

muscle tissue

contractile cells with actin and myosin filaments; most abundant, uses most energy. 3 types: skeletal= voluntary movements; striated

smooth= involun. movements; not striated

cardiac= involun. movements; striated

nervous and endocrine

__ and __ systems coordinate the actions of organ systems.

nervous system vs endocrine system

sends point to point messages, short duration. immediate responses, coordinating movement.

broadcast molecular signals, tissues respond, and longer duration. regulation of growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, digestion.

both maintain homeostasis.


body's thermostat


make more heat through muscle contraction in endotherms

countercurrent exchange

reduce heat loss through this process. fish use it. cooled blood of extremities flows back past warm arteries.


changing anatomy/physiology to better suit environment; reversible. ex: moose up a mountain.


how animals allocate energy for different functions

basal metabolic rate

minimum metabolic rate. at rest, no stress. for non growing endotherms


physiological state of decreased activity and very low metabolic rates. ex: hibernation (during winter), estivation (during summer), daily (hummingbirds let temp. drop when inactive).

essential nutrients

whatever an animal can't synthesize. amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals


two types. water-soluble and fat-soluble. organic compounds


any inorganic elements needed in various amounts.


shortage of food energy. body begins to break down own proteins, etc. once the sugars/fats exhausted.

4 stages of food processing


digestion=break down food to usable molecules.enzymatic hydrolysis.

absorption=cells take up digestive product

elimination= removal of unassimilated waste

bulk feeders

eat large pieces of food. most animals. humans.

fluid feeders

eat other organisms' body fluids; mosquitos

filter feeders

filter particles from water; whales

substrate feeders

ingest substrate, eliminate most of it; earthworms.

accessory glands

salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gall bladder are __ __.


waves of smooth muscle contraction


segments isolated by __: muscular closures


enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen (carbohydrates) in mouth.


glycoprotein lubricant in mouth that protects lining of oral cavity and facilitates swallowing. protects against tooth decay.


__ opens to 2 passage ways: trachea and esophagus.


cartilage flap that closes flap during swallowing


connects the oral cavity to the stomach.

striated muscle: upper part; voluntary swallowing

smooth muscle: lower part; involuntary peristalsis


lowers pH of stomach to 2 (acidic) denatures proteins


protease (breaks peptide bonds)

parietal cells

secrete H+ and Cl- separately

chief cells

secrete pepsinogen (inactive pepsin)

small intestine sections

duidenum, jejunum, and ileum


site of digestion in the small intestine, receives secretions from the pancreas, liver and gall bladder.

pancreas: neutralizes acidic chyme, secretes proteases, amylases and nucleases

liver: produces bile; stored in gall bladder (lipid digestion)

jejunum and ileum

sites of absorption in small intestine. villi and microvilli increase surface area. nutrients move through epithelial cells.

hepatic portal vein

capillaries lead to the __ __ __ for processing by liver: controls chemical composition


fat (triglycerides) components are too large to go through microvilli. they are processed in cells and sent to lymphatic system via __.

large intestine

recovers water in the alimentary canal. colon+cecum+rectum. connects to small intestine at T-junction: colon one way, cecum the other (pouch for fermenting unassimilated material)

appendix: extension of human cecum


water reapsorption. ions pumped out of colon to draw out water.


better developed incisors and canines


broad molars for grinding. also have longer alimentary canals than carnivores.


unspecialized teeth


most animals lack this enzyme that breaks down cellulose of plant cell walls. some herbivorous vertebrates have mutualistic organisms in their guts.


cows, sheet, etc.: 4 chambered stomach

pancreas and liver

___ and ___ control negative feedback

circulatory systems

facilitate exchange with the environment.

open circulatory systems

anthropods, most mollusks. circulatory fluid (hemolymph) in direct contact with organs; same as interstitial fluid.

advantages: lower pressures, can use fluid as hydrostatic skeleton, body movements help circulate.

closed circulatory systems

annelids, cephalopods, vertebrates. circulatory fluid (blood) in vessels, separate from interstitial fluid.

advantages: high blood pressure, faster delivery of O2, nutrients

cardiovascular system

composed of pumping heart with 2+ chambers

atrium: receives blood

ventricle: pumps blood away

pulmonary circuit

right side: to lungs, oxygen-poor blood to lungs

systemic circuit

left side: to body

atrioventricular valve (AV):

semilunar valves:

heart murmur:

between chambers

btw ventricles and arteries

defective valve leads to back-flow

sinoatrial node:

cause atria to contract, empty into ventricles

atrioventricular node

after .1s delay, ventricles contract

lumen, endothelium

all vessles (capillaries, arteries and veins) have and open __ lined by __.


layer of smooth muscle, then layer of elastic connective tissue.


layer of smooth muscle and connective tissue.

precapillary sphincters

close off paths thru capillary beds

lymphatic system

network of small vessels that drains excess interstitial fluid: lymph

eventually returned to circulatory system

moves by smooth muscle contraction


90% water with dissolved salts, proteins, gases, wastes, horomones


red blood cells. O2 transporter. lack nuclei, mitochondria, full of hemoglobin (oxygen transport protein)


white blood cells. perform various immune functions.


cell fragments involved in blood clotting


___: damage plugged by platelets and reinforced by fibrin protein

partial pressure

the fraction of the total pressure exerted by air.

countercurrent exchange

___ ___ of respiratory medium maintained by ventilation. Capillaries flow in opposite direction. removes 80% of dissolved O2.

tracheal system

insects. series of air tubes that branches throughout body. gas exchange does not involve circulatory system.


vertebrates. air in through nostrils (filtered, warmed, moistened), to larynx and into trachea. branches into 2 bronchi, which continue to branch into bronchioles, tiniest bronchioles end in alveoli (terminal sacs where gas exchange happens

positive pressure breathing

amphibians. push air in by shrinking oral cavity

negative pressure breathing

mammals. pull air in by expanding thoracic cavity with muscles and diaphragm (skeletal muscle) controlled by breathing control centers in brain by negative feedback

Why is hemoglobin necessary?

Necessary because O2 has low solubility in water.


foreign invaders that try to co-opt organismal resources; cause disease. prokaryotes, eukaryotes, viruses.

immune system

necessary to avoid/limit infection. keep foreign invaders out. recognize self vs nonself once invaders inside. detection of non-self accomplished by molecular recognition.

innate immunity

active all the time. non-specific. found in all animals and plants.

inhibit/detect broad range of pathogens

first defense

only line of defense in invertebrates

acquired immunity

adaptive immunity: response enhanced by previous infection, highly specific.

only vertebrates

responds mostly strongly to pathogens it recognizes.

slower but more specific.

humoral response

antibodies defend against infection in body fluids

cell-mediated response

cytotoxic lymphocytes defend against infection in body cells


digest bacterial cell walls of microbes


__ in hemolymph: phagocytosis and various chemical protections.

antimicrobial peptides

disrupt pathogen plasma membranes of fungi and bacteria.

toll-like receptor

receptors that recognize pathogen bits in innate immunity. activation triggers innate immune response.


phagocytic cell. circulate the blood


phagocytic cell. some migrate throughout the body, others reside permanently in organs and tissues

dendritic cells

found in tissues that contact the environment (skin). phagocytic cell.


phagocytic cells. located beneath mucosal surfaces.

antimicrobial proteins

include interferons and the complement system


antimicrobial protein. produced by cells infected by viruses; signal other cells to produce anit-viral compounds

complement system

antimicrobial protein. proteins in blood plasma, activated by microbial substances; leads to bursting of cells. also part of inflammatory response.

inflammatory response

release of signaling molecules following infection/injury. innate immunity

mast cells

__ __ release histamine, a signaling molecule. causes vessels to dilate, becoming more permeable.


activated __ also release signaling molecules, cytokines, that promote blood flow

systemic vs local inflammatory responses

increase production of white blood cells (macrophages+lymphocytes)

fever: accelerate repair? kill invading cells?

natural killer cells

innate immunity response. inflammatory response. can recognize and chemically-destroyed destroy diseased cells. normal body cells produce class 1 MHC surface proteins.

infected or cancerous do not

NK cells look for such cells and kill them

immunological memory

vertebrates: acquired immunity involves ___ __.

B cells

mature in bone marrow. type of lymphocyte.

T cells

move from bone to the thymus. type of lymphocyte.

antigen receptors

lymphocytes activated by binding to specific antigens displayed on the cell surfaces, using __ __. Causes lymphocytes to divide: one daughter used now and one saved for later (memory cell)

antigen receptors (antibodies)

B cells secrete __ __ (__): bind to foreign molecule. some t cells detect and kill infected cells. other t cells "help" activate other lymphocytes


foreign molecules recognized by lymphocytes. typically proteins or polysaccharides. may be on surface of pathogens. T and B lymphocytes have them in plasma membrane

plasma cells

some b lymphocytes (__ __) produce antigen receptors= antibodies (immunoglobulin)


small part of antigen that is recognized by and bound to antigen receptor. one antigen can have many of these.


B cell receptors are this shape. 4 polypeptides. 2 heavy, 2 light. linked by sulfide bonds. heavy chains "transmembrane"

c trans-membrane, with sulfide bonds

V at tips: forms 2 asymmetrical antigen binding sites.

T cell receptor

has a and B chains linked by sulfide bonds.

C and V regions, but with 1 antigen binding site.

free antigens

b cell receptors bind __ __.

"presented" antigens

T cells only bind __ __.

effector cells

activated B or T cells divide many times. A type of daughter cell. short-lived, attack antigen/pathogen. innate immunity.

memory cells

activated B or T cells divide many times. A type of daughter cell. long-lived, with same antigen receptor. innate immunity.

adaptive immunity

primary and secondary immunity responses.

primary immune response

adaptive immunity. production of effectors (plasma cells) peaks 10-17 days.

production of memory cells leads to immunological memory

secondary immune response

second exposure. peaks faster (2-7 days) and higher.

helper t cells

enhance humoral and cell-mediated responses. binds to antigen presenting macrophage, dendritic cell, or b cell: class II MHC, TCR (T cell receptor) and accessory protein (holds complex together).

cells exchange signaling molecules (cytokines): stimulates B cells (humoral response) and cytotoxic T cells (cell-mediated response)

humoral immune response

activation and clonal selection of effector B cells. "antibody mediated response"

secrete antibodies that circulate in blood and lymph.

defend against extracellular pathogens


cytotoxic T cells= effector T cells

activated by binding class I MHC, TCR and accessory protein on infected cell and cytokines from helper T

secretes proteins that rupture cell membrane and initiate apoptosis.

MHC proteins (major histocompatibility complex)

___ ___ on the surface of cells presents antigens to T cells. This complex makes the proteins that present antigens on cell surface.

Class I MHC

In (almost) all cells

bind foreign peptides synthesized in cell

recognized by cytotoxic T cells


in macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells (antigen-presenting cells)

bind foreign fragments acquired through phagocytosis

recognized by helper T cells: influence activities of B and cytotoxic T cells

B cell

activated _ __ produces memory cells and plasma cells that release antibodies.


antibodies interfere with pathogen function. binds to virus, bacterium or toxin.


antibodies interfere with pathogen function. binding sites for macrophages.

activation of complement system

antibodies interfere with pathogen function. form "membrane attack complex" with __ __, cell lyses.


concentration of body fluids similar to surrounding environment: no specializations for __.


water moves from low solute to high solute concentration. sea water is hyperosmotic, blood hypoosmotic.


body fluid isoosmotic with environment


body fluid regulated

many marine invertebrates

most tolerate narrow range of temps (stenohaline)

a few can tolerate wide range (euryhaline)


protein/nucleic acid metabolism results in __. highly toxic but highly soluble. aquatic organisms can let it diffuse from body surface.


many vertebrates convert ammonia and CO2 to __. lower toxicity.

uric acid

reptiles + birds, terrestrial invertebrates convert ammonia to __ __: lower toxicity. nonsoluble (little water needed). most costly to produce.


__ is produced in 4 steps in the excretory system. built on a tubular theme.

transport epithelium

some surface specialized to move solutes/water into/out of circulatory fluid.


first step of urine production. body fluid forced through semi-permeable membrane (water, ions pass: proteins, etc. do not).


2nd step of urine production. water and ions selectively taken back.


3rd step of urine production. wastes, etc, actively added to filtrate.


4th step of urine production. remaining filtrate (urine) leaves the body through urethra.


___ of flatworms: beating cilia inside flame bulb draw body fluid into tubules, filtrate excreted. function: osmoregulation rather than excretion

metabolic waste diffused across body surface or eliminated through the mouth. excretory system of flatworms


___ of annelids: beating cilia draw body fluid in the tubes. reabsorption in with capillaries. function: osmoregulation and excretion. excretory system or annelids.

malpighian tubules

__ __ of insects: immersed in hemoplymph. solutes secreted by transport epithelium from hemolymph. water reabsorbed, nitrogenous waste/uric acid excreted. excretory system of insects

kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

each __ served by renal artery and renal vein.

fluid leaves each kidney via __.

each ureter drains to common __ __.

drains to outside via __; controlled by sphincter muscles.

renal cortex, renal medulla

kidney is composed of out __ __ and inner __ __; lots of blood vessels and excretory tubules.

nephron, bowman's capsule, glomerulus.

in kidney. functional unit of kidney. one long tubule; begins with __ __ surrounding cluster of capillaries (__).

proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule, collecting duct, renal pelvis

path of filtrate within nephron

Bowman's capsule to __ __. then to __ of __; in mammals extends into renal medulla. then to __ __, then to common __ __. collecting ducts join to form __ __ which drains to ureter.

afferent and efferent arterioles, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta.

each nephron served by circulatory system.

__ and __ __ lead to and from glomerulus.

__ __ around tubules

__ __ associated with loop of Henle

proximal tubule

filtration step. first stage of concentration of wastes.

descending loop of henle

filtration process. reabsorption of water. permeable to water but not salts

ascending loop of henle

filtration process. reabsorption of NaCl. permeable to NaCl but not water. active and passive transport.

distal tubule

filtration process. regulates NaCl out K+ in.

collecting duct

filtration process. further concentrates filtrate. moves down gradient. loses water, actively reabsorbs NaCl. in inner medulla, permeable to urea: water diffuses out to contribute to high osmolarity.

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

released in response to high blood osmolarity. made in hypothalamus, stored in pituitary. increases water permeability, concentrates urine.

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

hormone that maintains blood pressure. when blood pressure is low (dehydration), initiates enzyme cascade resulting in arterial construction.

endocrine signaling

hormones circulate in blood/hemolymph and activate target cells

paracrine and autocrine signaling

__ and __ signaling: secrete molecules, "local regulators", that act over short distances, reach target cells by diffusion.

synaptic and neuroendocrine signaling

__ and __ signaling: network of neurons transmit chemical signals (neurotransmitters) to other cells across synapses.

specialized neurosecretory cells secrete molecules, NEUROHORMONES, that diffuse from nerve cell endings into the bloodstream.


chemicals released outside the body to affect another organism. ex: warning, attracting mates.

water-soluble hormones

cell membrane receptors initiate signal transduction and response.

lipid-soluble hormones

move across cell membrane, receptors within cell/nucleus. receptor hormone complex interacts directly with DNA.

insulin and glucagon

ex of antagonistic pair: __ and __. both hormones produced in pancreas.

increased blood glucose leads to release of insulin.

decrease in blood glucose leads to release of glucagon (targets liver to convert glycogen to glucose)

type I diabetes

autoimmune disorder kills cells that make insulin. lots of glucose in blood, but cells not taking it up.

type II diabetes

mostly the result of life style (overweight, lack of exercise).

insulin produced but target cells don't take up glucose.


vertebrate __: endocrine gland in brain; important for nervous/endocrine coordination.

pituitary gland

neurosecretory signals from hypothalamus travel to the __ __ (actually 2 fused together)

posterior pituitary:

stores two hormones from hypothalamus.

Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin

anterior pituitary

makes several hormones that are released upon stimulation from hypothalamus. acts on a wide variety of targets.

tropic hormones: those that regulate other endocrine glands.

adrenal glands

involved in stress behavior. on kidneys (renal organs) with 2 parts, adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.

epinephrine and norepinephrine

stress leads to the release of these 2 amines from the adrenal medulla. prepares body for short-term excitement.


stress leads hypothalamus to release tropic hormone (____) that stimulates adrenal cortex.

mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

ACTH released from the hypothalamus in response to stress, releases two main types of steroids for long-term stress response: __ and __.

sexual reproduction

fusion of haploid (n) gametes to form dipoid (2n) zygote

internal fertilization

games mingle in female's reproductive tract


one individual splits into two of similar size


one individual grows from another. ex: hydra, colonial corals


breakage, followed by regeneration. ex: starfish


offspring develop from unfertilized eggs.


the sex of an individual is determined by its __. males have testes that produce sperm.

females have ovaries that produce ova (eggs)

external fertilization

can occur in aquatic environments.

spawning: both sperm and eggs released to water.

some species synchronize based upon environmental cues.

gametogenesis (oogenesis)

production of gametes. must be coordinated with systems to support fertilized embryo.

eggs relatively large: DNA+nutrients for embryo

sing meiotic egg produced.

much of process completed b4 birth. mature gametes produce until 50.

long pauses in meiotic divisions


males. production of sperm is simple. lots all the time. sperm is small: DNA+little else.

all four products become gametes

meiotic division timing occurs throughout adulthood

meiotic divisions: sperm produced in continuous sequence from precursors to mature gametes.

key ways spermatogenesis differs from oogenesis.

1) number of gametes formed by meiosis

2) timing of meiotic division

3) pace of meiotic divisions


external sex organ. urethra and erectile tissue.

relies on hydrostatic pressure (blood) during copulation

other mammals have a bone (baculum) to maintain rigidity


external sex organ. contains testes outside the body.

spermatogenesis happens at lower temp than body

testicles: testis within a scrotum.


internal sex organ. composed of highly coiled SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES.

seminiferous tubules

inside testes. produces sperm.

leydig cells (endocrine): located btw tubules, make testosterone, etc.


internal sex organ. highly coild, 6m tube. sperm take 3 WEEKS to mature.


the process of getting sperm form the inside to the outside.

from epididymis to muscular VAS DEFERENS, and around the bladder.

ejaculatory duct: opens to urethra.

seminal vesicles

most of the volume of semen; contains mucus, sugar, ascorbic acid, and prostaglandins.

prostate gland

adds more fluid to semen, including anticoagulant enzymes and nutrients.

bulbourethral gland

secretes mucus to neutralize any urine (acidic) in urethra. this gland releases this to add to semen.


diploid stem cells within testes.

primary spermatocyte: 2n

secondary spermatocytes: nx2 products of meiosis 1

spermatids: nx4...products of meiosis II

sperm cells: nx4...mature in seminiferous tubules

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

hormone from hypothalamus, stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH (the gonadotropin molecules)

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone)

hormones from pituitary. tropic hormones that target gonads and regulate sex hormone reproduction.

__: acts on sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules

__: acts on leydig cells btw seminif. tubules


produce sex hormones

males: androgens, like testosterone

females: estrogen, like estradiol and progesterone

negative feedback

hormonal control of spermatogenesis is based on __ __.

sertoli cells

what FSH acts on. nourish developing sperm.

promote spermatogenesis.

the cells produce INHIBIN, which regulates pituitary.

leydig cells

what LH acts on. secretes testosterone, which promotes spermatogenesis.


inhibits both hypothalamus and anterior pituitary


paired __ are the female gonads


outer layer of follicles: __. partially developed eggs surrounded by support cells. 1-2mill follicles at birth. only 500 can mature btw puberty and menopause.


after __ (release of ovum), follicle becomes CORPUS LUTEUM that makes estrogen

corpus luteum

what follicle becomes after ovulation. makes estrogens. degrades if not fertilized.


fallopian tubes. leads to uterus (womb). connects to vagina via CERVIX. uterus lined by ENDOMETRIUM: many blood vessels to support developing fetus.


___:diploid 2n stem cell withing follicle of ovary

primary oocyte: 2n. present at birth

secondary oocyte: n +polar body (one per month;stops mid meiosis II)

fertilized egg: 2n +polar body

ovulation + sperm initiates completion of meiosis II and develops into 2n zygote.

follicle becomes corpus luteum.

ovarian cycle

reproductive cycle. procudes ovum. lasts about 28 days. under control of same hormones as spermatogenesis.

GnRH--FSH and LH released--FSH stimulates follicle growth--follicle secretes setradiol--low estradiol inhibits anterior pituitary--leads to spike in FSH and LH then estradiol then gonadotropins--follicle ruptures, releasing 2 oocyte (ovulation)--luteal phase follows; LH stimulates development of corpus luteum, which secretes estradiol and progesterone.--decrease in gonadotropin causes corpus luteum to degrade.--in the absense of pregnancy, the whole cycle starts again.

uterine/menstral cycle

synchronized with the ovarian cycle hormonally

prepares the uterus to support a fetus.

estradiol from follicles causes endometrium to thicken;proliferative phase--after ovulation, estrogens stimulate development of uterine lining, including arteries and glands;secretory phase.--when corpus luteum degrades, hormone levels drop and endometrium degrades, releasing blood. menstrual flow phase.

coordination of ovarian and uterine cycles until menopause (46-54 years)


46-54 years of age. coordination of ovarian and uterine cycle stops. other mammals have seasonal or annual ESTROUS CYCLE ("in heat") when females are receptive.


"conception". sperm fuses with mature oocyte in oviduct.

24 hours: first cleavage

2-3 days: zygote reaches uterus

1 week: blastocyst (hollow ball of cells), implants in endometrium

develops into fetus.

hGC (human chorionic gonadotropin)

embryo produces ___. works like LH to keep corpus luteum from degrading. keeps progesterone levels up. can be detected in uring;pregnancy test


one or more embryos in the uterus

gestational period

first 2-3 weeks: embryo nutrients from endometrium

placenta: forms from embryonic and material tissue; blood vessels from both exchange nutrients, gases, wastes, etc.

after 8 weeks of ORGANOGENESIS, embryo termed a fetus

estradiol and oxytocin

after 38 weeks, interaction btw these hormones and local regulators leads to labor.

dilation of the cervix

contraction of uterus to push fetus out

more contraction to deliver placenta

key stages to animal development





vitelline layer

extracellular matrix of egg

jelly coat

protects egg and attracts sperm.

acrosomal reaction

contact of sperm and egg cause this.


vesicle at sperm tip with hydrolytic enzymes break down jelly

acrosomal process

structure with proteins that bind receptors on eggs.


fusion of sperm and egg leads to change in membrane potential. fast block to polyspermy. not in mammals

cortical reaction

fusion also initiates __ __. vesicles in cortex (outer part) fuse with plasma membrane.

contents (enzymes) lead to fertilization envelope and SLOW block to polyspermy.


earliest divisions of life, rapid. cells divide by mitosis, but don't grow in size.

blastomeres: individual (smaller) cells


hollow ball of cells with a BLASTOCOEL.

cytoplasmic determinants

proteins, mRNA, etc. in various places.

yolk: stored nutrients (vegetal axis) and non yolk side is animal pole



presence of __ influences shape of blastula


the process by which adult germ tissues are formed. the ball of cells turns into a structure with 2-3 tissue layers and a gut (gastrula)

sea urchin gastrulation

3 tissues (germ layers) are ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

starts at vegetal pole. vegetal plate forms.

vegetal plate invaginates and becomes archenteron.

digestive tubes form, lined by endoderm

archenteron in sea urchin

vegetal plate invaginates and becomes ___. opening is the blastopore (future anus)

gastulation in frog

blastopores form on dorsal side at dorsal tip; extends around blastula.

future endoderm and mesoderm expand by INVOLUTION; shrinks blastocoel

end of gastrulation, blastopore surrounds YOLK PLUG.


once germ layers present, cells differentiate to form organs.

formation of notochord and so on


condensation of dorsal cells above archenteron

neural plate

cells curve inward to form a neural tube (becomes CNS)

neural crest cells

cells that migrate to form other nerves.

cell differentiation and morphogenesis

organogenesis continues into __ and __. (leads to adult organs).


mammalian blastula

trophoblast: outer epithelium (forms placenta)

inner mass cells: embryonic stem cells


initiates implantation. secretes enzymes to break down endometrium. thickens, send extensions to maternal blood vessels.

inner mass cells form epiblast and hypoblast


when cells change shape and move relative to each other.

cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)

morphogenesis. cells form stable tissues using __ __ __. usually glycoproteins on cell surfaces. allow cells to recognize others and bind them with specific receptors.

extracellular matrix

migration of cells also mediated by __ __: mesh of macromolecules outside of cells.


changes in gene expression based upon intercellular interactions

developmental potential

as cell lines develop, cells lose their __ __: they can become fewer different types of cells

pattern formation

__ __ is controlled by induction by induction providing positional info. (limb development in a chick).

apical ectodermal ridge (AER)

organizer region. at tip of bud. secretes growth factor that extends limb bud, proximal-distal.

zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)

organizer region. posterior, proximal location. organizes anterior-posterior of development: furthest become anterior.

peripheral nervous system

sensory input gets integrated into the central nervous system. response is transmitted by the __ __ __.

structural neurons

neurons that transmit info from eyes and other sensors that detects external stimuli or internal conditions


neurons that form the local circuits connecting neurons in the brain

motor neurons

neurons that transmit signals to muscle cells, causing them to contract.

glial cells

nourish, insulate, and regulate neurons.

cell body

part of neuron that houses most of cytoplasm. nucleus.

axon hillock

where axon joins cell body, where signals are generated

sodium potassium pump

brings k in and send Na out.

ion channels

channels that let ions move down their gradient

voltage potential

net movement of charge is what creates __ __.


membrane potential more negative


less negative of membrane potential activates voltage gated Na channels

refractory period

time btw action potentions, Na closed, AP not possible.

glial cells

speed of propagation increases with "insulation" by __ __.


glial cell. in CNS.

schwann cells

glial cell. in PNS

nodes of Ranvier

voltage gated Na channels limited to gaps in myelin sheath: __ __ __. depolarization jumps from node to node.

excitatory vs inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

depolarize membrane a little vs hyperpolarize membrane a little

temporal summation

series of potentials from same synapse

spatial summation

potentials from diff. synapse on cell.

inhibitory, excitatory

__ potentials can cancel our __ potentials

nerve net

cnidarians have a diffuse __ __ instead of nerves. networks of neurons vary in complexity among the animals.

Central Nervous System

peripheral nervous system

brain+nerve cord running body length.

ganglia (cell bodies) and nerves outside CNS


CNS. where all stimulus and voluntary (and involuntary) behavior is processed.

gray on outside

spinal cord

CNS. carries impulses to and form brain.

mediates reflexes

both brain and this are made of gray matter (non-myelin) and white matter (myelin)

white on outside.

cerebrospinal fluid

brain and spinal cord filled with this fluid. diffusion of resources and waste.


glial cells create tight blood-brain barrier

radial glia

embryonic glia that form tracks along which newly formed neurons migrate from the neural tube, the structure that gives rise to the CNS


glia that facilitate info transfer at synapses and sometimes release neurotransmitters; initiates formation of the blood-brain barrier during embryonic development.

radial glia and astrocytes

__ and __ can act as stem cells, generating new neurons in glia


immune cells that protect against pathogens in neurons

ependymal cells

line ventricles and promote circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

cranial nerves

connect brain with head

spinal nerves

connect spinal cord to rest of body

afferent neurons

bring information to the CNS (sensory)

efferent neurons

carry information away from CNS

motor system

autonomic nervous system

sympathetic division

parasympathetic division

enteric division

motor system

skeletal muscles; voluntary and reflexes. respond to external stimuli

autonomic nervous system

smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, etc.; involuntary. sympathetic, parasym, enteric.

sympathetic division

arousal, "fight or flight"

parasympathetic division

calming, "rest and digest"

enteric division




hindbrain and midbrain

__: midbrain+pons+medulla

homeostasis, coordination of movement, sharing info among other brain centers and PNS. attention, alertness, motivation.

__: coordinates movement, hand-eye coordination



diencephalon: thalamus+hypothalamus+epithalamus. functions in homeostasis, coordination sensory info. circadian rhythms.

cerebrum: center for learning, emotion, memory, perception. 80% of brain.outer cortex of gray matter. connected by corpus callosum.

reticular formation

sleep and arousal are controlled by __ __, diffuse network of neurons in the cor of the brain stem. filters info and determines what reaches cerebellum.

pons and medulla

__ and __ also regulate sleep. biological clock regulates sleep cycles.

limbic system

borders the brainstem, responsible for emotions, includes amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus.


__ has 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

broca's area

controls muscles in the face, active during speech generation.

wernicke's area

active when speech is heard, facilitates comprehension of speech.


two hemisphere's not identical in function.

left:math, logic language

right: spatial patters, non-verbal thinking

3 processes that determine structure of the nervous system during embryonic development

1) gene expression, signal transduction

2) huge neuron die-off

3) synapse reconfiguration

long-term potentiation

ex. of how synaptic connections changed. frequent excitation of a synapse can make the postsynaptic neuron more sensitive to the presynaptic neuron.

different receptors





1st step of stimulus to brain. sensory cell detects stimulus. stretching of mechanoreceptor opens ion channels


2nd step of stimulus to brain. conversion of stimulus to receptor potential. change in magnitude of action potentials is graded: magnitude varies with intensity of stimulus.


3rd step of stimulus to brain. if receptor potential initiates action potential.

receptor cell: axon or neurotransmitter


4th step of stimulus to brain. CNS processing of input from sensory neurons. all perceptions are coded by the paths their action potentials travel.


transduction modification. strengthening the stimulus; adding energy.


not to be confused with other adaptation. transduction modification. become unresponsive to constant stimulation.


bind molecules, initieates change in membrane potential. taste, smell.


deformed or moved to sense pressure, stretch, motion. touch, hearing, balance.

electromagnetic receptors

detect light, electricity, magnetism. eyes to detect light.


detect heat and cold. membrane proteins change shape under diff. temps.


detect "pain", like extreme pressure, chemicals. highest density in skin.


taste; detection of tastants in solution.

taste-buds on tongue.


smell; detection of odorants in air.

tympanic membrane

outer ear "eardrum" vibrates

middle ear: 3 tiny bones transmit vibrations


inner ear. receives vibrations.

vestibular canal

waves flow down __ __ in ear that cause vibrations that stimulate hair cells.

lateral line system

mechanoreceptors for detecting low-frequency vibrations perceive the direction and velocity of water, predators, and prey.



many animals have __ to sense gravity. chamber surrounded by ciliated cells.

__ move around as body moves




balance associated with ears.

inner ear has __ (horizontal) and __(verticle)

chambers lined with hair cells and little stones (otoliths)

rods and cones

__ and __ change light energy into chemical energy, which is transmitted to the brain.


visual pigment in rods. active __ leads to signal transduction

ganglion cell

axons receive info from rods and cones, and form the optic nerves that transmit impulses to the brain.


basic contractile unit of myofibril (made of actin and myosin filaments)

z lines

sarcomere. ends of actin fibers line up at ends called __ __.

m line

sarcomere. middle of myosin fibers lined up called __ __.


troponin complex

two sets of regulatory proteins are bound to the thin (actin) filaments. Ca2 and regulatory proteins.

__: coils around actin

__: arranged along tropomyosin. Ca2 in cytoplasm binds this, results in exposure of myosin binding sites.

proteins block myosin binding sites.

motor unit

___: all fibers controlled by one neuron. all contract together.

one muscle may be controlled by hundreds of neurons

fixed action patterns

sequence of unlearned acts linked to a simple stimulus.


the transmission and reception of signals btw animals

innate behavior

traits that are fixed by genotype. individuals with the same genotype can have diff behavioral phenotypes.

learning: modifying behavior based upon experience


formation at a specific stage in life of a long-lasting behavioral response to an individual or object, includes a sensitive, critical, period.

necessary for bonding btw parents and offspring.

how to determine magnitude of environmental effects.

1) behavior the result of complex interactions of environment and genotype

2)raise the same/similar genotypes in diff environs.

cross-fostering studies

offspring of one species raised by another. same/similar genotypes in diff environs.

twin studies

look at identical twins placed with diff foster families. useful for demonstrating effects of environment on identical genotypes.

associative learning

associate one stimulus with another. ex: classical conditioning, operant conditioning.

classical conditioning

arbitrary stimulus leads to certain response. ex: Pavlov's dog and bell

operant conditioning

trial and error learning. ex: rat obtaining food

spatial learning

maintaining an internal "map"

ex: digger wasps use visible landmarks to find nest


reasoning, awareness. ex: honybees can be trained to recognize "same" and "diff" colors in maze experiments


devising solutions to proceed past obstacles. ex: the raven and the string. social learning: many animals can learn by observing conspecifics.

3 ex. of expectations of natural selection to refine behaviors to maximize survival and reproduction.

optimal foraging

mate choice and parental care

sexual selection

optimal foraging

maximize benefit, minimize cost. ex: fruit fly larval foraging: rovers and sitters have different foraging alleles.

mating system

__ __'s are related to the parental roles. length and # of relationships btw males and females. diff species, different ways.


mating type. long-term pair bonding


mating type. multiple mates.

polygyny: one male, multiple females

polyandry: one femal, multiple males (uncommon)


mating type. no pair-bonding.

sexual selection

__ __ has behavioral effects. a type of natural selection; result of differential mating success when there is competition for mates.

Males compete to attract females (sing, dance)

males physically compete. ex: sheep.

sexual dimorphism

sexual selection leads to __ __ in phenotypic traits: appearance and behavior


__ presents a problem for evolutionary theory. it means to do something that lowers your own fitness but increases fitness of other individuals. ex: squirrel gives alarm call when sees predator. group gets a warning, caller attracts the predator....nonreproductive mole rats take care of reproductive ones


in parent-offspring relationship, parent is actually looking after their __. the fitness of the child, affects fitness of parent.

inclusive fitness

this idea solves the problem of altruism in evolutionary theory.

fitness (representation of your genes in the next generation) depends on your reproduction and that of your close relatives.

Hamilton's Rule


weigh the cost/benefit of an "altruistic"act

C(cost) is the # of offspring that an action might cost the "altruist"

B(benefit) is the # of offspring that an action will gain the recipient

r (coeff. of relatedness): average # of genes shared by the 2.

as long as rB>C, then the benefit outweighs the cost.

the ways organisms interact with other organisms and their environments on diff scales are

individual, populations, communities, ecosystems, landscapes, global.






__: groups of the individuals of the same species

__: groups of pops

__: groups of communities

__: groups of ecosystems

__: the Earth: biosphere

evolutionary time

populations change to adapt to their environments.

ecological time

response of organisms, populations, etc. to their environments.

ecology vs environmentalism

science vs advocacy.


movement of individuals to new areas. barriers can explain species distributions. ex: no kangaroos in NA even though they could survive there.

habitat selection

when animals choose to avoid a livable habitat: psychological barrier. ex: antbirds won't fly across water ever.

biotic factors

species distributions are often limited by other species, which is termed __ __.

species absent because other species are absent/present

herbivore can limit distribution of food species: sea urchins and kelp

physiological tolerance

species distributions are also limited by their __ __. physical/chemical properties= ABIOTIC FACTORS.

abiotic factors

physical/chemical properties=__ __.

temp: too hot, too cold

water: too wet, too dry

sunlight: too much or little

geology: inorganic parts of habitat (minerals, rocks, physical structure of land, pH)

abiotic factors

biotic factors.

Earth is not homogeneous for __ __:

leads to variation in __ __, etc.

many abiotic factors can be summarized as CLIMATE.

surface curved

results in broad climates. areas away from equator get less intense sunlight.

axis of rotation tilted 23.5

results in broad climates. seasonal variation in sunlight.

pattern of heating/evaporation

results in broad climates. variation in precipitation

rotation of the Earth

results in broad climates. circulation of air/water currents.

local variations

proximity to water: moderates temps and humitiy

mountains (shadow to sunlight, altitude, temp, rain shadow)

tilt of earth results in predictable seasonality: leads to variation in day length, sunlight, temp.

long-term global variation in climate

some periods are warmer/cooler/wetter/drier than others.

until 15-20000ya: northern latitudes coverd by glaciers.

species continue to move north (away from equator) as global climate continues to warm.

characteristic biomes

biotic and abiotic factors combine to create __ __.


major habitat types, determined by both biotic and abiotic factors.


areas of transition btw biomes


__ leads to community variation, patchiness. ex: fire, hurricanes.

salinity and depth

Aquatic biomes are characterized by __ and __. there are several aquatic biomes since 75% earth surface is aquatic.

freshwater vs marine

pelagic(open water) vs benthic(bottom)

photic vs aphotic

most photosynthesis occurs near the surface. light filtered out quickly: __ vs __.


chance over time. conspecific individuals occurring in a particular area. live in same environ. use same resources

interact/breed with each other.


__ are dynamic: changing

gain individs from births

gain individs from immigration

lose individs from deaths

lose individs from emigration

3 characteristics to describe populations

density: # of invids per unit area (or volume)

mark recapture method.





demographics: age and sex structure of the pop.

life table

age specific summaries of survival in population. usually divided by sex. useful way to summarize population demography.

constructed by following a single COHORT from birth to death.

surivorship curves

__ __ are a graphical way to summarize population demography. number alive plotted vs each age.

life history

species have characteristic survivorship curves, depending on the __ __: pattern of reproduction and survival.

Type 1: put energy into caring for a few offspring (humans)

Type 3: high death rates early on, low for survivors (oysters)

Type 2: beldings gournd squirrel. many relatively small offspring.

reproductive tabel=fertility schedule

rates of birth are just as imp as rates of death.

generally pay attention only to females in pop.

follow reproductive output of cohort

cost of reproduction

energy spent on offspring not spent on parent.


repeated reproduction. multiple reproductive periods. ex: belding's ground squirrel. variation in life history


big-bang reproduction: all reproduction concentrated in a single effort.

favored in unpredictable environs: low probability of adult survival. variation in life histories.

trade offs

cant maximize all reproductive patterns at same time. more offspring means smaller offspring with less care. variation in life histories.

change in pop

__ __ __= births during time interval+deaths during time interval. (ignore migration).

exponential pop growth

this model is unrealistic in most circumstances.


population growth is often regulated with __.

carrying capacity

# of individs that a habitat can sustain.

limiting factors such as energy, shelter, nutrients, territories, water.

can vary over time

limiting resources can lower b, raise d.

logistic pop growth

this model incorporates carrying capacity.

characteristic S shaped curve.


way to talk about life history trade-offs. for traits that are helpful at high densities.

few relatively large offspring. (type 1 survivorship curve).


way to talk about life history trade-offs. for traits that are helpful at low densities.

many relatively small offspring; (type 2 survivorship curve).

density dependent

__ __ is ecological feedback. when birth or death rates change with pop size, they are this.

too small, grows. too large, shrinks

causes of density-dependent regulation




accumulation of wastes

intrinsic factors (physiological responses to crowding)(stress hormones that lower reproductive rate).


change in population size from factors independent of density is __ __ regulation.

ex: weather events (drought, tornado, etc.)


population size is __.

pops fluctuate over time.

predation: increase in hares leads to increase in lynx; overexploitation by predators leads to low prey densities.


pops vary in __ as well as time. we have been focusing on r, not migration.


populations connected by dispersal in a __.

sources: positive pop growth, lots of emigration to sinks.

sinks: negative pop growth, lots of immigration from sources required to maintain pop.

pops blink in and out over space and time in a mosaic.


habitat fragmentation can yield a __ from what originally was a large continuous pop.

some species occur naturally in this structure : butterflies.

the ways in which species interact within communities

1)competition: -/-

2)predation: +/- one animal eats another

cryptic coloration=camouflage

aposematic coloration=brightly colored, warning

batesian mimicry: harmless resembling venomous animal

mullerian mimicry: 2 venomous resembling each other.

3)herbivory: special case of predation; animal east a plant/alga.


competition results from species having overlapping __. sum of the biotic and abiotic needs of a species; its place/role in a habitat.

outcomes of overlapping niches causing comp.

competitive exclusion: weaker competitor eliminated from local area.

resource partitioning: species "realized niche" smaller than "fundamental niche" (2 barnacles competing for space).

character displacement:resource partitioning leads to morphological differences


relationship where close association btw species pairs, where at least one species always benefits.




richness and abundance

__ and __ are both aspects of community diversity.

species richness

number of different species

relative abundance

proportion of individuals that belongs to each species

shannon diversity index

two communities can have same richness but different structures. ex: __ __ __.

trophic structure

feeding relationships among species. energy moves up from lower levels.

food chain: producers (plants)



food web

best way to show a trophic structure. multiple connections among levels. species occur at multiple levels. most have 6 or less levels.

energetic hypothesis

inefficiency of energy transfer btw levels in food web.

dominant species

most abundant or greates biomass(total mass of entire pop). determine existence of other species.

keystone species

key niches maintaining community structure; not necessarily dominant. ex: w/out starfish, mussels would take over.


"ecosystem engineers". ex: beavers create habitat.


__ have both top-down and bottom-up regulation.




bottom-up model


increasing p, increases h, which increases c

top-down model


trophic cascade.


species richness is maintained by __.

stable equilibrium

most communities are not in a __ __, that is they are not static entities.

nonequilibrium model

better characterizes most communities, they are dynamic with shifts in the incidence and relative abundance of species over time.

intermediate disturbance hypothesis

some disturbance increases species diversity.

low disturbance= dominant species exclude others

high disturbance=high stress; slow-growing

intermediate disturbance=allows for a mix; creates patches of diff habitats


within communities, there is a characteristic pattern of species replacement over time: __.

primary succession

beginning without soil. ex: after a volcanic eruption, glacier recession.

secondary succession

with soil; ex: fire burns forest. takes less time.

species-area curve

larger areas have more species:seen in __ __ __. larger area, more habitats, support more diff species.

latitudinal gradient

more species closer to the equator; higher tropical diversity.

historical: poles recently glaciated

climate: warmer, wetter, so higher productivity (evaptranspiration=evaporation+transpiration)


sum of biotic and abiotic interactions in an area. ranges from microhabitat to whole earth.

2 abiotic processes central to ecology:

flow of energy and cycling of nutrients

flow of energy

energy (usually sunlight) transformed to chemical energy by autotrophs, all eventually lost as heat

cycling of nutrients

elements continually recycles; move btw ecosystems.

inputs: minerals from dust and rainwater

outputs: gases lost to atmosphere water

generally in/outputs small relative to amount recycled

trophic levels in ecosystem

primary producers=autotrophs. plants

primary consumers=herbivores that eat producers

secondary consumers=carnivores that eat herbivores

tertiary consumers=carnivores that eat carnivores

detritivores/decomposers=get energy from detritus(nonliving animal)

primary production

production is ultimately limited by the amount of energy that enters the system.

__ __: amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in a given span of time.

gross primary production (GPP)

total 1degree production for an ecosystem

net primary production (NPP)

part stored as organic matter.

this is the energy available to higher trophic leves

secondary production

new biomass added to consumers; amount of 1degree production converted to consumer.

% production efficiency

=portion of assimilated 1degree production that is used for growth.

endotherms have low efficiency

ectotherms have high

trophic efficiency

percent production transferred up to the next level. can express pyramid of net production.

biomass pyramid

standing crop

can also think of __ of __ (not production)

limiting nutrients

if adding a nutrient increases productivity, then it is limiting.


increased algal production due to pollution (sewage, fertilizer)

biogeochemical cycles

both abiotic and biotic. inputs/outputs. nutrients sometimes present but unavailable.

nutrients cycle through ecosystems.

most imp:

H2O, C, N, P


___ affects leaf litter decomposition rates. ex: case study from Canadian ecosystems

hubbard Brook study

cut down all the trees in the valley, noticed massive loss of nutrients by the ecosystem.

lesson: standing plants control outputs. these long term studies are needed to understand the natural functioning of ecosystems.

humans have conducted accidental experiments: changed the biotic and abiotic interactions in ecosystems, resulting in altered function.

nitrogen cycle

humans enrich the __ __ in agriculture.

farming removes N from soil.

temperate grass land: lots of soil/N that lasts decades

tropical forest: little soil/N lasts few years.

crops grown: N removed. ends up in sewer.

critical load

excess (amount that exceeds __ __, no longer limiting) runs off into rivers.

extra N leads to algae blooms in gulf of mexico, which leads to O2 depletion: "dead zone"

can be mitigated by using less fertilizer.

global human population size

the human population growth is still a positive growth but is no long exponential

annual percent increase

this percentage has decreased throughout the years.

human population growth in diff countries

human pop growth and age structure varies by country depending on whether they are industrialized or developing.

graph shows that the less developed countries have a higher birth rate, but higher death rate as well. developed countries, have a lower birth rate and maintain that rate throughout different ages.

demographic transition

switch from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates in a given country, tends to accompany industrialization and improved living conditions. undeveloped countries (aphighanistan) has rapid growth, US has slow growth, and italy has no growth. the chart for italy shows that the there are the most people in the middle age age range.

ecological footprint

this measures human impact. calculates how much land and water resources we consume to grow food, support lifestyles, and assimilate waste; can also be measured as energy consumption. measured per capita.

conservation of biology

the goal of this is to conserve biodiversity, and mitigate negative effects of humans on ecosystems.


human caused. ecosystem modification is causing increased extinction rates. always extinction but more species going recently.

why worry about biodiversity

innate tie to nature: biophilia

obligation to future generations

provide us with useful services: ecosystem services (clean, detoxify waste, pollinate crops)

conservation biologists

they are concerned with loss of biodiversity at multiple levels.

Endangered Species Act.

12% birds endangered worldwide

21% mammals

730 plant species

extinction of freshwater animals. 5x worse than terrestrial.

preservation of species genetic diversity

community and ecosystem diversity

community and ecosystem diversity

fates of species interconnected. flying foxes hunted, but important pollinators and seed dispersers. protect habitats

threats to biodiversity

1) Habitat loss and destruction

biggest threat.

2) Introduced/Exotic Species

increase in global travel led to this.

3) overexploitation

fisheries and large mammals. harvested ^ than can reproduce. hunting of elephants, rhinos, whales.

4) global change

acid rain, climate change, atmospheric chemistry.

human activities that cause habitat degradation and loss

agriculture= primary cause of ecosystem change

natural resource extraction= mining, logging, fishing

urbanization and infrastructure development

war and violent conflict


consequences of pollution besides degradation

toxins accumulate in top predators.

humans add synthetic chemicals to ecosystem like pesticides (DDT), industrial chemicals (PCBs), which are not broken down by detritivores.

mercury from plastic manufacture, coal burning. accumulates in predators, especially fishes.

biological magnification

becomes more concentrated in higher trophic levels.

consequences of pollution

DDT (insecticide), now banned. accumulated in birds of prey, like bald eagles. led to weak egg shells.

still use DDT in Africa for malaria.

invasive species

an introduced species that establishes, expands its range, and has a substantial impact on native organisms and ecosystems. ex: fire ants.

invasive species can interact with natives in many ways

as competitors, predators, and parasites.

predators: ex., brown tree snake on Guams 9 of the island's 11 native forest dwelling bird species are now extirpated (extinct on Guam). these snakes have even caused electrical outages in Guam bc they coil around the power lines and break them.




collecting for trade.

leads to decrease in species abundance and ultimately extinction of the species.

fossil fuels

burning __ __ creates acid rain. burning them release S and N. combines with water to make sulfuric and nitric acid.lowers pH of water bodies in areas with weakly buffered water (less bicarbonate to neutralize it)


__ we release can also alter abiotic factors.

CFCs used in refrigeration, air conditioners. the layer of ozone in the atmosphere absorbs UV radiation bc CL released reacts with ozone.

"hole" in ozone.

mitigated by banning the production of CFCs in 1987. has helped a lot.

excess CO2

this excess in the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels results in increasing global temps.

greenhouse effect.

the global warming trend on Earth has had greatest effect at high latitudes.

extinction vortex

small populations lead to smaller populations which leads to extinction.

minimum viable population (MVP) size

number of individuals at which a species is able to sustain its numbers and not enter the extinction vortex. depends on the species.

effective population size

# in pop. that breed. demographic modeling to predict how long population can last.

landscapes and habitats

often more efficient to focus of __ and __ than on species. this way we can protect areas instead of multiple species.

set aside large tracts of land to protect from fragmentation. (edges, edge effects, corridors)


boundaries btw communities are ecosystems

edge effects

increase due to habitat fragmentation


strips of habitat that connect otherwise isolated habitat fragments, facilitates movement and dispersal.

biodiversity hot spots

smaller areas with lots of diversity

restoration ecology

we need to restore when ecosystems are too far degraded= __ __. ex: turning open-pit mine into salt marsh.


using plants, fungi, prokaryotes, etc. to detoxify an area.

plant plants that can take up contaminants in contaminated areas.

also use bacteria

biological augmentation

use organisms to add compounds to ecosystem. ex: plant legumes to increase N in soils until native plants get established.

zoned reserves

have surround by "buffers" that separate. protected areas with areas set aside for regulated human pop, limited logging. (in Costa Rica).