Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
01. What were the first lenses in Europe used for?
The first lenses were used in Europe in the late 1500's by merchants who needed to determine the quality of cloth.
40. What happens to proteins in the Golgi apparatus?
Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins. From the Golgi apparatus, proteins are then sent to their final destinations.
20. Who discovered the nucleus?
Scottish botanist Robert Brown first identified the nucleus in 1831.
10. What 4 structures are common to most cells?
4 structures common to most cells: cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, and cytoplasm.
11. What's the main difference btw prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Main difference btw eukaryotes and prokaryotes: the cell of eukaryotes have a nucleus, but the cells of prokaryotes do not.
12. What kinds of living things are prokaryotes?
All bacteria are prokaryotes. Ex. of prokaryotes include escherichia coli and staphyococcus aureus.
13. What activities associated with life can prokaryotes carry out?
Prokaryotes carry out every activity associated with life. They grow, reproduce, and respond to changes in the environment.
14. What are organelles?
Specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.
15. What kinds of things are eukaryotes?
All plants, animals, and fungi, and many microorganisms, are eukaryotes.
16. What kinds of cells have a cell wall? What kinds don't?
Cell walls are found in many organisms including plants, algae, fungi, and nearly all prokaryotes. Animal cells, do not contain cell walls.
17. What is the main function of the cell wall?
The main function of the cell wall is to provide support and protection for the cell.
18. Plant cell walls are made up of what?
Plant cell walls are made mostly of cellulose, a tough carbohydrate fiber.
19. What kinds of chemicals is wood made up of?
Cellulose is the principal component of both wood and paper.
21. What is the function of the nucleus?
The nucleus controls most cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
07. What did Rudof Virchow add to the cell theory?
Rudolph Virchow summarized his years of work stating, "where a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell...."
23. What is chromatin composed of?
Chromatin consists of DNA bound to protein?
27. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton helps to support the cell. The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape.
28. The cytoskeleton consists of what 2 main parts?
The cytoskeleton is made up of a number of important structures, including microtubules and microfilaments.
29. What do microtubules do during cell division?
They help to separate chromosomes during cell division.
22. What does DNA do?
DNA combines with protein to form chromatin, which is found throughout the nucleus.
32. Why do you suppose the microfilaments are sometimes called the skeleton of the cell?
Microfilaments are sometimes called the skeleton of the cell because they are the outline then everything starts to fill in around it.
33. What does organelle mean? Why are they called this?
Organelles or "little organs".
34. What is the function of ribosomes? Where are the two places they are found?
Ribosomes produce proteins following coded instructions that come from the nucleus.
24. When are you going to see chromosomes in a cell?
You are going to see chromosomes in a cell when a cell divides.
25. What is the function of the nucleolus? Where is it located?
Function of the nucleolus is where the assembly of ribosomes begins.
37. Proteins that are made for release from the cell are made by what organelle?
Proteins that will be released from the cell are modified in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, as are many membrane proteins.
38. Proteins that are needed inside the cell are made by what?
Other cellular proteins are made by "free" ribosomes, which are not attached to any membrane.
39. What happens to the proteins once they leave the rough er?
26. What's moving through the pores in the nuclear envelope?
The nuclear envelope is dotted with thousands of nuclear pores, which allow material to move into and out of the nucleus.
30. What kinds of cells have centrioles?
In animal cells, microtubules form a pair of structures known as centrioles.
02. What two instruments were invented in Holland in the 1600's?
In Holland in the early 1600's two useful instruments were constructed: the telescope and the microscope.
03. What was Leeuwenhoek the first person to see?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to see tiny living organisms in a drop of water.
04. Why did Hooke call the tiny chambers he observed in the cork, cells?
Robert Hooke called these chambers "cells", because they reminded him of a monastery's tiny rooms, which were also known as cells.
05. What are cells?
Cells are the basic units of all forms of life.
06. What contributions did Schleiden and Schwan make to the cell theory?
Matthias Schleiden-concluded all plants are made of cells. Theodor Schwann-concluded that animals are also made of cells.
31. Cilia and Flagella help single-celled organisms do what?
Cilia and flagella enable cells to swim rapidly through liquids. They can produce considerable force; in some cells, cilia move almost like the oars of a boat, pulling or pushing cells through the water.
08. What are the 3 main ideas that make up the cell theory?
Cell theory: 1) all living things are composed of cells. 2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3) New cells are produced from existing cells.
09. How big are the tiniest bacteria?
The tiniest bacteria are only 0.2 micrometers across. The giant amoeba, chaos, chaos, may reach 1,000 micrometers in diameter.
35. Why is it called the "rough" er?
The rough endoplasmic reticulum has this name because of the ribosomes that stud its surface.
36. What happens on the outside of the rough er? Inside the rough er?
Newly made proteins move directly from these ribosomes into the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they may be chemically modified.