Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of micro organisms?
Bacteria, viruses and some fungi.
When you get an infectious disease what causes your symptoms?
Symptoms or by Toxings released.
Name some of the symptoms that can be caused by an infection.
Fever or a rash. This is done because of damage done to the cells.
Some micro organism damage cells directly give an example of this.
Malarial this disease invades red blood cells and multiplies insides the and makes the cell burst.
Bacteria produces proteins that damage the material holding cells together what would this do?
It would help the bacteria to invade more deeply.
Other micro organisms produce toxins that poison cells what might this cause?
This causes fever or inflammation.
What are the conditions needed for bacteria to produce?
They need warm moist conditions so the chemical reactions a can take place they also need a source if nutrients for energy.
True or false there are not many places inside the human body that you can find the right conditions for bacteria reproduction.
Actually it is the exact opposite a few bacteria can quickly become a large colony inside the body.
What do viruses need to reproduce?
They need other cells to reproduce as they use parts of other cells to make copies of themselves. Certain viruses can reproduce quickly as there are lots of the right cells for them to use.
If you start with one organism that reproduces in 30 minutes you'll have two how many will you have after ninety minutes?
What is the role of your immune system?
The role of your immune system is to deal with any infections micro organisms that enter the body.
What does an immune response always involve?
White blood cells.
What can certain white blood cells detect?
Things that are foreign to the body e.g. Micro organisms.
What do white blood cells do when they in counter microbes?
They I gulf and digest them.
What do non specific white blood cells do?
They engulf and digest any foreign thing likes microbes in the body.
Some white blood cells attack specific microorganisms what do they have receptors that detect?
They detect antigens
What are antigens?
Antigens are substances that trigger immune responses.- theyre usually protein molecules on the surface of a microorganism.
Certain white blood cells can produce specialised antibodies but what are antibodies?
Antibodies are proteins that bind to antigens and they can either
1) mark the microorganisms so so the other white blood cells con engulf/ digest it
2)bind to it and neutralise viruses of toxins.
3)some can even kill them directly
Once the right white blood cell recognises the antigens what does it do?
It multiplys to produce as many antibody that are specific to that microbe as possible.
What are memory cells?
These are the white blood cells that stay around after the microbes have left the body so they can respone quickly next time the same microbe enter the body.
What is the difference between the primary and secondary immune response?
The primary immune response is how the immune system respond the first time a certain microbe enters the body. The secondary immune response is how the immune system responds the same microbe enters the body.
What is a vaccine?
It is a safe form of a microorganism
How do vaccines work?
Vaccines work just like a primary immune response but without (usually) the symptoms of the infection so from then on you are immune.
How can epidemics be prevented?
By many people being vaccinated against a disease. The less people vaccinated the more easily the disease can spread.
Why might people choose not to be vaccinated?
1) not completely safe
2)may have side effects
3) people react differently
4) people with existing diseases that suppress the immune system
What is an antimicrobial?
It is a chemical that inhibits or kills the growth of viruses fungi and bacteria. They clear up infections your immune system is having trouble with.
Give an example of an antimicrobial
What are antibiotics?
Antimicrobials that can kill bacteria.
Antifungal and anti viral are what kind of drugs?
Antimicrobials that kill fungi or viruses.
Why are Antimicrobials not a permenant solution?
Because they force microbes to mutate into 'superbugs' and become resistant
Give an example of a superbug
Why should you always finish your antibiotics?
Because even if you feel better the stronger most evolved microbes may still be in their but not enough to make you ill. They will then breed and become resistant to antibiotics.
Why should only use antibiotics if you REALLY need to?
Because taking antibiotics gives you a situation where naturally resistant bacteria have an advantage so increase in numbers. Which could harm others.
Where are new drugs first engineered?
In a lab. Using human cells to test on. So you can measure the effects.
Before new drugs are tested on humans, and after testing on human cells what are the drugs tested upon?
Te second stage of drug testing is on at least two different species of love mammal e.g. Monkeys and rats. This way potentially harmful substances are stopped and not giver to human volunteers.
Why are drugs tested on mammals?
Be use they have systems that are similar to those of humans so the test give early indications of what the drug might do to people.
What would happen if there is series problems when the drug is tested on animals?
The testing is unlikely to go any further this saved any humans haven't harmed. Testing is also stopped of the drug is not affected.
If the labatory test do not pick up any thing that could limit how useful the drug wil be what will happen next?
The drugs will then be tested on human volunteers these test are called clinical trials.
In human trials what are the drugs first tested on?
The drugs are first tested on safe and healthy volunteers this is to make sure it does not have any harmful side affects sick people are more likely to be vulnerable to any damage the drug could do.
If the results on healthy volunteers are good what are the drugs next tested on?
The drugs are next tested on people suffering with the illness this is for safety and affectiveness.
What are placebos?
Placebos are usually used in human trials. These are fake treatments that don't involve giving the drug to the patient.
If the patient is seriously ill why aren't placebos used?
Placebos are not used because it is unethical not to allow the patient to get the potential benefited of the drug.
How do they know if the drug works?
If the drug works then the volunteers who did not use placebos should moreover more than those in the group that did get the placebo.
What are the three human trials called?
1) blind
2)double blind
3) open lable
What are blind trials?
Blind trial is where the patient does not know if they have been given the drug or the placebo.this is because the patient know they have been given the drug might feel better for psychological reasons even of there hasn't really been an improvement. In the same way if a patient eh is illhas not been given the drug might feel they are not getting any better even if they are recovering. A blind trial iliminates these affects.
What are double blind trials?
In double blind scientist the scientist as wel as the patients do not know which patients got the drug and which patients got the placebo. This is so the scientists keho are monitoring the patients are not subconsciously influenced by their knowledge.
What are open lable trials?
Open lable trials is where both the patient and the scientists are aware of the treatments that have been used. Open lable trials are used when you cannot masks the direst,ends being tested. E.g. If one is a drug and another is an excercise.
Human drug trials usually last a long time. Why?
This is be cause it can take a while for the drug to have affect it was designed for e.g. Treating cancer. It is also Morgantown if the drug has any side affects which may only appear after a long time.
Why is blood vital?
Blood is vital because it moves oxygen from your lungs to your cells, Caron dioxide from your cells to your lungs, nutrients from your gut to your cells and hormones from your glands to your cells.
What are the tubes called that blood is circulated around the body in?
Blood vessels.
What are the oxygen and nutrients carried in the blood to?
They are carried to the blood cells and waste substances such as carbon dioxide are carried away.
What is the heart made of?
The heart is made of muscle cells they kee it beating continually.
How's blood supplied to the heart?
Blood is supplied to the heart coromarry arteries which branch from the base of the aorta (the biggest arterie in the body).
What are three majors types of blood vessels?
Arteries, vans and capillaries.
State the use of an arterie.
They. Arry blood away frm the heart into body cells. It come out of the heart a high pressure s the arterie walls have to be strong and elastic and have a thick lumen on the inside of the arterie.
What is the main use of a vain?
Gains carry blood back to the heart. The blood is at a lower pressure in the gains s the halls do not have t be a thick. They have a bigger lumen than arteries t help blood flow more easily. They also. Have valves to keep the blood going in the right direction.
What are capillaries.
They are branches of arteries that are gnu. They carry blood really. Lose to ever cel and exchange substances. They have permeable walls so substance can diffuse in and out. They supply nutrients and oxygen and take away carbon dioxide. There wallsm are one cell thick.
What can your pulse rate be used to measure?
It can be used to measure your heart rate. Which is the number of times your heart beats in a minute a.k. Your bpm
What is the pulsation of an artery caused by?
Its caused by blood being pumped through by heart beat.
What happens when yor heart muscle contracts?
Blood of forces out of the heart this Increases the pressure of your blood. When your heart muscle relaxes the heart fills with blood and your blood pressure decreases.
How can you measure your blood pressure?
You can some sure your blood pressure by taking a reading of the pressure of blood against the walls of an artery.
Why does blood pressure measurements have to values? E.g. A persons blood pressure might be written as 135 over 85.
The higher value is the pressure blood when the heart contracts and the lower value is the pressure of the blood when the heart relaxes.
What is a normal resting rate for a an adult?
Between 69 and 100 beats per minutes.
What can a persons heart rate and blood pressuEllaell you about that person?
It can tell you he healthy they are by comparing the, against normal measurements.
What does high blood pressure increase the risk of?
It increases the risk of hear disease because the inner line of the arterie is usually smooth and unbroken but a high blood pressure can damage it.
What are the stages of heart disease due to high blood pressure?
1) inner lining of arterie damaged because of high blood pressure.
2) fatty deposits can sometimes build Jon damaged areas of arteries this restricts blood flow and increases blood pressure.
3) if a fatty deposit breaks through the inner lining of the arterie a blood clot may form.
4) the blood clot could block the arterie come telly or break away and block another arterie.
5) if a coronary arterie become completely blocked an area of the hert muscle will be completely cut off and receive no oxygen. This is a heart attack.
6) hear attack can cause serious damage to the heart, death impart of the hear or death altogether.
How does a poor diet effect the risk of heart disease?
Cholesterol from saturated fats makes up a large part of the fatty deposits in damaged arteries. Also a highsalt intake increases blood pressure.
How does stress increase the risk of heart disease?
If a person is stress for a long period of time it will increase blood pressure.
How does smoking increase the risk of heart disease?
Because carbon monoxide found in cigarette smoke reduces the amount of oxygen blood can transport. So the heart can lack enough oxygen resulting in a heart attack. And nicotine increases the amount of times a heart beats increasing blood pressure.
How does misuse of illegal drugs increase the risk of heart disease?
Many drugs like ecstasy or cannabis increase the heart rate causing high blood pressure.
How does excessive alcohol intake increase the risk of heart disease?
Excessive drinking increases blood that leads to heart disease.
Where is the risk of heart disease higher?
In industrialised countrys. Because in these places people can afford fatty foods and not need to be physically active. (e.g USA, UK)
Why does regular moderate excercise reduce the risk of heart disease?
Because it burns fat that logs arteries and and strengthens the heart muscle.
Define epidemiological studies.
The study of patterns of diseases and what factors affect them.
In the case of heart disease what may epidemiologists study?
They may study people who died of a heart disease and try to look for similarities between these people and their lifestyle and/or their genes
Define homeostasis.
Homeostasis is maintaining a constant internal environment.
^^^ remember this definition!
When external environmental changes occur what do you automatic control systems do?
They set about to change the internal conditions to adapt to the environment. Eg too hot so you then sweat but do not pee a lot to conserve water.
What are the 3 main components to any automatic control system?
Receptors, processing centres, effectors. They can effect your hormones and nervous communication systems
Your internal control system uses something called a negative feedback. Explain.
It is a system when is theres something that their is too much it will send than to the processing centre who will coordinate a response then to effectors lower the amount and vice versa and if their is then too much the process starts again.
How can you gain water?
Drinks, food respiration.
How can you lose water?
Sweating breathing feaces and pee
What do kidneys play a vital role in balancing?
Water waste and other chemicals.
How do kidneys regulate the levels of stuff?
1) filter small molecules from the blood e.g salt sugar and waste
2) the reabsorb stuff e.g all the sugar, as much salt and water as the body needs (water absorption is controlled by the hormone ADH)
3) whatever else isn't needed is pee
What is blood plasma?
The liquid stuff that carries blood cells and dissolves substances
The kidneys regulate water levels by producing either ........... or ..................... urine
Dilute, concentrated
The concentration of the urine depends on the concentration of the ......... ...........
Blood plasma
Why would the external temrature effect the concentration of the blood plasma/urine?
Temp effects how much you sweat which effects how much wateryou contain. This means the kidneys will reabsorb more waterbuck into the blood leaving a small concentrated amount of urine.
How does exercise affect your urine?
Exercise effects how much you sweat which effects how much wateryou contain. This means the kidneys will reabsorb more waterbuck into the blood leaving a small concentrated amount of urine.
How does the intake of fluids and salts affect your urine?
Not drinking enough water or too much salt will make concentrated urine. Drinking lots of water will make dilute urine.
The concentration of urine is controlled by what hormone?
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) that is released by the pituitary hormone.
What monitors the blood water content and then gives orders to release ADH?
The brain. It tell the pituitary what to do.
The whole process of water content is controlled by what?
Negative feedback.
How is ADH production inhibited by drugs?
They interfere with the production of ADH
What are the effects of alcohol suppressing ADH production?
Alcohol make you pee lots and dilutely because it suppresses the production the kidneys will absorb less water. This's you means you will urinate more leading to dehydration.
What are the effects of ecstasy on the body?
The ecstasy increases the amount of ADH produced so you pee very little and very concentrated. You can die from too much water.