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60 Cards in this Set

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biology

the study of life

living thing include both the:
visible world of plants and animals and the invisible of bacteria and viruses
most basic unit of life

cell
living creatures can

take in energy from the environment
this energy is transformed to maintain

metabolic processes and for survival

living organisms have the ability to

rebuild and repair themselves when injured

life can

reproduce

have you ever seen dirt reproduce? no..

life can only come from other living creatures

life is characterized by the

response to stimuli
life can adapt and respond to

the demands placed on it by its environment

there are 3 basic types of

adaptions that occur in higher organisms

1. reversible changes

you live near sea level and travel to a mountainous area. You begin to experience a difficulty breathing w/ higher altitude...these symptoms go away once you return near the sea

2. somatic changes

occur as a result of prolonged changes in the environment

somatic changes cont...if you stayed in the mountainous area..

your breathing would slow (adapting). these changes are also reversible

3. genotypic adaption caused by

genetic mutation

genotypic adaptions take place within the
genetic makeup of the organism and are not reversible

ex. of genotypic adaptation
the development of resistance to pesticides by insects and spiders
life is organized...

"works", grows, reproduces, responds to stimuli and adapts

the foundation of biology as it exists today is based off of

5 basic principles

1. cell theory

all living organisms are composed of cells

2. gene theory

genes are inherited through gene transmission

3. evolution

any genetic changes in a population that's inherited over several generations

4. homeostasis

ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes

5. thermodynamics

energy is constant and energy transformation is not completely efficient
vertebrae

organisms that have a backbone

ex.'s of vertebrae


fish, amphibians

invertebrae

organism without a backbone

ex.'s of invertebrae

slugs, snails, earthworms, spiders
characteristics of living things

use energy, respond to their environment, made up of cells, maintain homeostasis, grow and reproduce

organization within living things

cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

cell

basic unit of life

tissue

an aggregate of cells in an organism that have a similar structure and function

organ

a group of tissues that perform a specific task or group of tasks

organ system

a group of organs that work together to carry out a particular task
organisms are classified by

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
living

alive

alive

alert and active
what do cells do?
"building blocks of life"

cells are the

fundamental and basic structure of all living organisms

all cells come from

preexisting cells
all cells contain the hereditary information for

transmitting information to the next generation of cells

hereditary

conferred by or based on inheritance
conferred

grant or bestow

your body is made up of about

10 trillion cells

bacteria are the

simplest cells that exist today

a bacteria is a

single, cell-contained, living cell

when you get an infection

the bacteria are swimming around your big cells like little rowboats next to a large ship
bacteria are a lot simpler than

human cells

a bacterium consists of an

outer wrapper called the cell membrane

and inside the membrane is a

watery fluid called the cytoplasm

the cytoplasm might be

70% water

the other 30% of the cell is filled with

proteins called enzymes that the cell has manufactured

along with similar molecules like


amino acids, glucose molecules and ATP

at the center of the cell is a

ball of DNA

all the work being done in any cell is being done by


enzymes

the purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to

allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly

these reactions allow the cell to
build things to take things apart as needed

a cell is really a little bag full of

chemical reactions that are made possible by enzymes

enzymes are made from

amino acids and they are proteins