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29 Cards in this Set

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microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between cells.


They are haploid, reproduce both sexually and asexually, and have true multicellular organization, with plasmodesmata communicating between adjacent cells. They are green algae


Genus of green algae in the family Characeae. superficially resemble land plants because of stem-like and leaf-like structures. They are found in fresh water.


Liverworts, Mosses, and Hornworts:

-GAMETES OF ALL BRYOPHYTES ARE SURROUNDED BY A JACKET OFSTERILE CELLS. protects thegametes from drying out and dying.

-Gametophyte is the larger dominant region

-leaves are microphylls


Small, green, terrestrial plants. No true roots, stems, or leaves. They have an above ground leaf-like structure, known as a thallus, and an underground structure, known as a rhizoid. Found in moist environments. Reproduce asexually by gemmae (small circular or spherical reproductive structures which are borne inside gemmae cups). Gemmae cups form at the top of the thallus.


They do not have complicated Vascular Systems. They're Nonvascular Plants. Water passes from cell to cell by osmosis. They are only a few cells thick. They do not have true Roots, Leaves, or Stems. They require Water for Fertilization.

-gametophyte is haploid, produces sperm & egg

-Sporophyte is diploid, produced spores by meiosis


Flowerless, spore-producing plant.


Lycopodium and Selaginella:

- seedless plants having vascular tissue

-They have true leaves, stems, and roots

-Sporophyte is the larger and dominant region.

-Require water for fertilization to occur

-leaves developed independently

-leaves are called microphylls --> narrow with single unbranched vein


-Mostly tropical

-A horizontal, branching, underground stem (rhizome)

-produces roots and upright, aerial branches.

-The small, microphyllous leaves are generally spirally arranged.

-Sometimes sporophylls look like microphylls

-other times sporophylls are grouped in cones at the end of the aerial stem.

-Each sporophyte leads to a gametophyte that is monoecious (male and female parts on same plant)

-Some gametophytes grow above ground and photosynthesize for energy

-Other grow below ground and are associated with fungi


-branched, prostrate stem, which produces roots and upright branches that grow a few inches tall.

-leaves are covered with leaves pointed in four longitudinal rows.

-forms cones at the ends of the branches that house the spores.

-Spores are hetersporous

-Megaspores germinate to for megagametophyte, which form egg-bearing archegonia

-Microspores germinate to form micropametophyte, which for the sperm-bearing antheridium.

-microgametophyte nor the megagametophyte has chlorophyll; so the gametophytes, and the developing embryos in the archegonia, must obtain their nutrition from food stored within the spore.


Psilotum, Equisetum, Fern:

-They are euphyllophytes, and seedless vascular plants.

-Chloroplast DNA inversion

-leaves are flat to photosynthesize efficiently

-leaves posses network of veins

-All are homosporous?



-Consists of one or more leaves attached to a rhizome

-Most produce spores on undersides of leaves.

-leaves are technically megaphylls to maximize efficiency for photosynthesis.


- leaves are greatly reduced and usually non-photosynthetic

-leaves are technically megaphylls that are just reduced in size.

-Stems are green and photosynthetic

-Spores are produced in the Sporangium

-Sporangium is located inside the strobili

-Strobili is cone shaped structres at the top of stems.

-Strobili are non photosynthetic


-No true leaves or roots

-True stem with rhizoids.

-Dichotomous branching (branches off in 2's)

-Small little circles are called Enations, and they don't have any veins so they're not considered true leaves.


Cycads, Ginkgo, Conifers, Gnetophytes:

-All are wind pollinated

-They have naked seeds (pine cones)

-Things that evolved:

1. integument

2. pollen with pollen tube

3. seeds

4. Heterospory

5. Bifacial vascular cambium: allows for secondary xylem and phloem growth


-Woody plants (palm trees)

-Bear seeds on modified leaves called sporophylls

-Large divided leaves that store water (good for droughts)

-Roots have relationship with blue green algae

--> roots grow out of the ground and the algae fixates Nitrogen from the air.

- stem is thick and fibrous, stores starch


-Tree is dioecious (male & female plants)

-generally taller than it is wide

-leaves have 2 lobes and a leathery texture

-Leaves have parallel veins

-seed is covered with a fleshy outer covering that splits when the seed matures



-woody plants

-produce pinecones as reproductive structure

-they have needles instead of leaves


-Most are shrubby or woody vines

-leaves occur in whorls of 3

-reproductive parts are in strobili (cones)

-most are dioecious


Basal Angiosperms, Monocots, Eudicots:

-development of an Endosperm, double fertilization, carpels, and fruit!

-All have flowers at some point in their life cycle.

-Flowers are reproductive organs of plant

-They have small pollen grains that allow for quick and efficient fertilization

-Stamens produce the pollen grains (male reproductive organ)

-Carpel encloses developing seeds that may turn into fruit

Basal Angiosperms:

-2 seedling leaves (cotyledons)

-Net-like veins in leaf

-numerous flattened stamed

-many tepals and carpels

-sepals and petals are not distinct


-1 seedling leave

-parallel veins in leafs

-Flower parts are in multiples of 3

-No secondary growth


-2 seedling leaves

-Net-like veins in leaf

-Flower parts are in multiples of 4/5

-Secondary growth is normally present