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29 Cards in this Set

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Euglena

Paramecium

Blepharisma

Naeglaria

Chlamydomonas

Stentor

Plasmodesmata

microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between cells.

Coleochaete:


They are haploid, reproduce both sexually and asexually, and have true multicellular organization, with plasmodesmata communicating between adjacent cells. They are green algae

Chara:


Genus of green algae in the family Characeae. superficially resemble land plants because of stem-like and leaf-like structures. They are found in fresh water.

Bryophytes

Liverworts, Mosses, and Hornworts:


-GAMETES OF ALL BRYOPHYTES ARE SURROUNDED BY A JACKET OFSTERILE CELLS. protects thegametes from drying out and dying.


-Gametophyte is the larger dominant region


-leaves are microphylls



Liverworts:


Small, green, terrestrial plants. No true roots, stems, or leaves. They have an above ground leaf-like structure, known as a thallus, and an underground structure, known as a rhizoid. Found in moist environments. Reproduce asexually by gemmae (small circular or spherical reproductive structures which are borne inside gemmae cups). Gemmae cups form at the top of the thallus.



Mosses:


They do not have complicated Vascular Systems. They're Nonvascular Plants. Water passes from cell to cell by osmosis. They are only a few cells thick. They do not have true Roots, Leaves, or Stems. They require Water for Fertilization.


-gametophyte is haploid, produces sperm & egg


-Sporophyte is diploid, produced spores by meiosis

Hornworts:


Flowerless, spore-producing plant.

Lycophytes

Lycopodium and Selaginella:


- seedless plants having vascular tissue


-They have true leaves, stems, and roots


-Sporophyte is the larger and dominant region.


-Require water for fertilization to occur


-leaves developed independently


-leaves are called microphylls --> narrow with single unbranched vein



Lycopodium:


-Mostly tropical


-A horizontal, branching, underground stem (rhizome)


-produces roots and upright, aerial branches.


-The small, microphyllous leaves are generally spirally arranged.


-Sometimes sporophylls look like microphylls


-other times sporophylls are grouped in cones at the end of the aerial stem.


-Each sporophyte leads to a gametophyte that is monoecious (male and female parts on same plant)


-Some gametophytes grow above ground and photosynthesize for energy


-Other grow below ground and are associated with fungi

Selaginella:


-branched, prostrate stem, which produces roots and upright branches that grow a few inches tall.


-leaves are covered with leaves pointed in four longitudinal rows.


-forms cones at the ends of the branches that house the spores.


-Spores are hetersporous


-Megaspores germinate to for megagametophyte, which form egg-bearing archegonia


-Microspores germinate to form micropametophyte, which for the sperm-bearing antheridium.


-microgametophyte nor the megagametophyte has chlorophyll; so the gametophytes, and the developing embryos in the archegonia, must obtain their nutrition from food stored within the spore.



Monilophytes

Psilotum, Equisetum, Fern:


-They are euphyllophytes, and seedless vascular plants.


-Chloroplast DNA inversion


-leaves are flat to photosynthesize efficiently


-leaves posses network of veins


-All are homosporous?


-

Ferns:


-Consists of one or more leaves attached to a rhizome


-Most produce spores on undersides of leaves.


-leaves are technically megaphylls to maximize efficiency for photosynthesis.



Equisetums:


- leaves are greatly reduced and usually non-photosynthetic


-leaves are technically megaphylls that are just reduced in size.


-Stems are green and photosynthetic


-Spores are produced in the Sporangium


-Sporangium is located inside the strobili


-Strobili is cone shaped structres at the top of stems.


-Strobili are non photosynthetic





Psilotum:


-No true leaves or roots


-True stem with rhizoids.


-Dichotomous branching (branches off in 2's)


-Small little circles are called Enations, and they don't have any veins so they're not considered true leaves.



Gymnosperms

Cycads, Ginkgo, Conifers, Gnetophytes:


-All are wind pollinated


-They have naked seeds (pine cones)


-Things that evolved:


1. integument


2. pollen with pollen tube


3. seeds


4. Heterospory


5. Bifacial vascular cambium: allows for secondary xylem and phloem growth

Cycad:


-Woody plants (palm trees)


-Bear seeds on modified leaves called sporophylls


-Large divided leaves that store water (good for droughts)


-Roots have relationship with blue green algae


--> roots grow out of the ground and the algae fixates Nitrogen from the air.


- stem is thick and fibrous, stores starch

Ginkgo:


-Tree is dioecious (male & female plants)


-generally taller than it is wide


-leaves have 2 lobes and a leathery texture


-Leaves have parallel veins


-seed is covered with a fleshy outer covering that splits when the seed matures


-

Conifers:


-woody plants


-produce pinecones as reproductive structure


-they have needles instead of leaves



Gnetopphytes:


-Most are shrubby or woody vines


-leaves occur in whorls of 3


-reproductive parts are in strobili (cones)


-most are dioecious



Angiosperms

Basal Angiosperms, Monocots, Eudicots:


-development of an Endosperm, double fertilization, carpels, and fruit!


-All have flowers at some point in their life cycle.


-Flowers are reproductive organs of plant


-They have small pollen grains that allow for quick and efficient fertilization


-Stamens produce the pollen grains (male reproductive organ)


-Carpel encloses developing seeds that may turn into fruit

Basal Angiosperms:


-2 seedling leaves (cotyledons)


-Net-like veins in leaf


-numerous flattened stamed


-many tepals and carpels


-sepals and petals are not distinct



Monocots:


-1 seedling leave


-parallel veins in leafs


-Flower parts are in multiples of 3


-No secondary growth



Eudicots:


-2 seedling leaves


-Net-like veins in leaf


-Flower parts are in multiples of 4/5


-Secondary growth is normally present