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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are waxes?

long-chain FAs with long-chain alcohols.

Protection for plants and animals

What factors influence membrane fluidity?

1. Temperature. high T = fluid, low T = rigid

2. Cholesterol = increase fluidity at low T and decreases fluidity at high T

3. High saturation = rigid

High unsaturation = fluid

Types of membrane proteins

1. Integral = transmembrane + embedded

2. Peripheral = membrane-associated. Associated with lipid rafts or with other integral proteins

Define passive transport

Transport across the membrane WITH the concentration gradient


What are three examples of passive transport

Simple diffusion = nonpolar things

Osmosis = water flows through membrane, solute cannot

Facillitated diffusion = carrier or channel proteins moving things down concentration gradient

Define active transport

Transport across the membrane AGAINST the concentration gradient


Protein required for tranpsport

Primary active transport vs Secondary active transport

Primary = use ATP as energy

Secondary = coupled transport. one molecule goes down electrochemical gradient moving another up the gradient

Describe what the Sodium-Potassium pump does and why it does it

3 Na out

2 K in

Goal = keep K in, Na out

Maintain NEGATIVE resting potential by pumping a net positive out

What distinguishes the IMM from other biological membranes?

Contains cardiolipin instead of cholesterol

What is the pH gradient between the cytoplasm and the intermembrane space of mito?


Remember the OMM is porous whereas the IMM is not

What is special about the nuclear membrane?

It is continuous with the ER

What is the nucleolus?

Site of ribosome assembly

Where rRNA is synthesized

What is the cristae and function

The foldings of the IMM

increase surface area so you can have more proteins for ETC

What is the function of the RER and SER

RER = many ribosimes. Proteins are secreted into the lumen of RER

SER = lipid/membrane synthesis

hormone synthesis

detoxification of drugs and poison

transports proteins from RER lumen to golgi

What is the function of the golgi?

Receives proteins from ER for modification or secretion

1. adds molecular motifs

2. adds signal sequences

3. Packages proteins into secratory vesicles

What are the function of peroxisomes?

Contains H2O2

Beta oxidation degredation of very long chain FAs

contains some enzymes of the pentose pathway

Describe microfilaments


Motor = myosin

important in cleavage in cytokinesis

Describe microtubules

Tubulin 9 + 2 (9alpha beta + 2alpha alpha)

Kinesin = towards plus end (PM)

Dynein = towads minus end (nucleus)

important for cilia and pflagella

Describe intermediate filaments

Involved in structural support, cell-cell adhesion, anchor organelles

Describe tight junctions

Form a collar around a cell and link cells within a single layer

Limit permeability. common in epithelial cells

Connect PMs of neighboring cells

Describe desmosomes

Bind adjacent cells by anchoring their cytoskeletons

cadherins connect IFs of one cell to IFs of another

Describe hemidesmosomes

Connect epithelial tissue to their basement membrane