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10 Cards in this Set

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Restriction Enzymes

Protein enzymes that cut DNA / RNA into fragments. The cut will always cut at a specific series of nucleotides.

Allows scientists to compare DNA differences between individuals of a species and recreate fragments of DNA that have the same ending pattern of nucleotides.


A process of separating particles (molecules or fragments of DNA) based on their size and or charge.

Allows scientists to separate out different sized particles for individual study.

Blood typing

A process of determining the blood types of individuals. A, B, AB, or O and RH +/- are the different possibilities.

Allows scientists identify people based on blood type and to use blood type to help determine heredity and criminal cases.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (P.C.R.)

A process of making copies of DNA or RNA fragments quickly in the laboratory.

Allows scientists have an ample supply of identical DNA material to work with.

DNA Fingerprinting

A process of using a bump technologies to cover up with a genetic "fingerprint" of a person

Allows scientists to identify an individual. Used commonly in criminal trials. Has become significantly important in establishing the guilt or innocence of a person.

Recombinant DNA (Genetic Engineering)

This process combines two or more sources of DNA.

Can combine DNA from two or more organisms in order to make a transgenic organism.

Human Genome Project

An effort by the scientific community to math every base pair of the entire human genome. Successful!

Allows scientists to determine what each of your genes does, identifies you the other flaws, and might suggest possible medical applications.

Stem cells

A class of cells that have the ability to differentiate in any other cell type. Usually found in early embryonic development (main source of stem cells is from the aborted fetus').

In the near future, they could replace old, deteriorating, or dead cell types. Examples, replacing neurons of a Parkinson's patient or growing new kidney cells.


A process where the genetic material of one individual is inserted into the emptied egg cell of another individual. Creating an exact copy of the first individual.

Allow scientist to create copies of individual organisms that have a particular benefit to society.

Gene therapy

A process to medically treated genetic disorder by inserting copies of healthy DNA into the cells of a patient. This allows for the correction the faulty genetic material.

This will become an extremely important tool in the near future for the medical community.