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21 Cards in this Set

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With an inflammatory response these receptors tether neutrophils to capillary endothelium adjacent to site of tissue damage:

Type I response, IgE




Basophils and neutrophils: produce histimine




CAMs

High endothelial venules (HEV) bind these types of cells at sites like lymph nodes:

[lymphocyte trafficing: "lymphocytic homing"


-effector T cells which go to site of infection


-memory T cells which go to site of first exposure]




delivery of T & B cell in presence of HEV (means antigen is captured)

Chronic inflammation results from:

ex. rhematoid arthritis, crohn's disease




chronic inflammation results from antigen still being present after immune response has occurred (persistant Antigen)

Please list 3 advantages of active immunization over passive:

1. cheaper


2. last longer


3. no reaction to serum (use horse serum in passive; causes serum sickness)

What human diseases did Jenner and Pasteur develop active vaccines for:

1. small pox


2. fowl cholera


3. malaria

What other human disease did Pasteur develop an active vaccine for:

rabies

What variable would influence the antibody class or classes produced in response to active vaccination:




dose & route




whether disease has a short incubation period: requires different antibody response length time




Type of allergy I, II, II: in antibody


Type IV: cell

How is the protocol for childhood vaccination determined:

-age given


-age it can be effective


-do what works!

When might you alter the vaccination schedule for a given child:

-if they were exposed to a disease or virus making them immunocompromised


-if they've had a blood transfusion (would not be impactful because not their antibody response)

What is the advantage of employing an attenuated vaccine:

Attenuated vaccines are strains that have been altered so they are not virulent




-exposure to Antigen produces response so next time there is exposure Antibody response comes from memory and is faster and more effective

What is the advantage of using purified antigens like capsules for active immunization:

long lasting

What is von Behring famous for:

passive immunization

Type I allergy usually directly effects these individual organ systems (3) in the body:

1. respiratory tract (anaphylaxis)


2. gastrointestinal tract (intestinal distress/discomfort)


3. integumentary: skin (hives)

What are 3 effects on the host from released histamine:

1. hives


2. vasodialation


3. Small muscle contraction: mucus

How can systemic type 1 anaphylactic allergic response be reversed:

with ephinephrine



Why is an Rh+ mom never at risk for erythroblastosis fetalis:

Rh+ moms are tolerant to Rh Antigen


What are 3 mechanisms that contribute to antibody diversity:

1. junctional variability


2. p-region nucleotide addition


3. n-region nucleotide addition

What was it that Tonegawa proved regarding antibody structural genetics:

That there were different genes on the variable and constant regions (basically disproving germline and somatic theory)

Following clonal expansion of a particular B cell, how does class switching occur:

T cell cytokines: change constant region while leaving variable region the same; so antigen specificity stays the same, but the antibody now interacts with different effectors



ex. IgM to IgG

At what additional risk would a person be if these innate defenses were missing:

Stomach acid: food digestion wouldn't work very well, GI tract would then be exposed to bacteria that could mix with normal flora creating "super bacteria" that the body can't defend against




Mucous of the muco-cilliary sheath: if the mucous was missing from URT, pathogens could enter LRT (lung region) which is sterile - normal flora could enter causing problems (also could happen in Urinary/Genital system)




Salt and fatty acids on skin surface: the skin is the first line of defense (bacterial infections, flesh eating diseases)

How do innate defenses help to keep the kidneys sterile:

-pH


-osmolality


-valves in urethra




Normal flora and mucosal lining of the genital/urinary system prevent (bacterial) infection; expelling urine consistently