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22 Cards in this Set

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Emil von Behring is known for making this contribution to the field of immunology:

antitoxins for diseases like diptheria

What are 3 of the characteristics displayed by specific acquired immunity:

1. diversity


2. specificity


3. memory

What are 3 cell populations that can carry out ADCC:

1. natural killer cells


2. neutrophils


3. macrophages

What are CD's (clusters of differentiation) and give an example:

CD's are monoclonals that identify particular cell receptors



ex. CD8 - cytotoxic T cells


List 3 functions exhibited by macrophages:

1. phagocytes

2. complement proteins


3. cytokines


What are M cells, where are they located and what is their function:

M cells are flattened mucosal cells with no microvilli, located in the lumen of the small intestine.



They enhance the transfer of antigen to the pocket of immune cells


What are the 4 properties of immunogenicity:

1. foreigness

2. size


3. composition


4. degradability


What is an adjuvant, please give two examples and their mechanism(s) of action:

An adjuvant acts as a stimulator for the immune response system, increase in immunogenicity: helps antibody -antigen binding


alum: precipitates antigen; slow release


freund's noncomplete: oil; slow release


freund's complete: oil with granuloma

Compare IgG and IgA:

IgG: 80% in serum; good opsonins, able to cross the placenta




IgG: 10% in serum; dimer, main role in mucosal surfaces of humans: allergic response

What is the presumed function of IgD:

located on B cells, adjacent to IgM; no known function: possibly something to do with tolerance

What forms the idiotypic determinant on an Ig molecule:

idiotypic epitope located on the hyper-variable region; Ig antigen binding +/- adjacent surface

List 3 biological consequences of Complement activation:

1. causes cell lysis

2. induce inflammatory response


3. opsonize antigen


Which group(s) of bacteria are particularly susceptible to complement membrane attack complexes:

gram negative bacteria

What does the MHC gene complex have in common with complement:

"multi-histocompatibility complex"



gene complexes present antigens to cells marking it as non-self (harmful). Complement proteins mark targets as harmful and activate and immune response


What is a congenic mouse strain and how were they used in research:

Identical mouse population with one mutation used to identify MHC.



Donald Schreffler


MHC II receptor are expressed by these APC:

B cells and Macrophages

What is the role of beta-2-microglobulin:

One the upper surfaces of mucosal associated with lymphatic tissues (MALT) with MHC1

Give an example of a thymus-independent antigen and what is the usual host response to it:

Thymus-independent antigen: polyclonal B cells that are activated by some mitogens



Host response is B cell proliferation and activation


only IgM; no memory

What does somatic hypermutation occur in an Ig molecule and how does it benefit the host:

somatic hypermutation occurs in the antigen binding region of an Ig molecule



benefits the host by providing the more than usual number of antigen binding sites of the Ig molecule


How does the mechanism of allelic exclusion in B cells help to protect the host:

allelic exclusion helps protect the host by guarding it against self-reactive antibody

Briefly tell me the function of neutrophils; mast cells and dendritic cells:

dendritic cells: move antigen to T cells



mast cells: play a role in type I allergy; release histomines, induce inflammation




neutrophils: no stain, multilobed-granulocytes; ADCC, induce inflammation

As a secondary lymphoid organ, what role does the spleen play in the body:

the spleen provides a site for lymphocytes to interact with antigen; filter blood