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76 Cards in this Set

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What are the symptoms of an Asthma attack?

-wheezing


-tight chest


-difficulty breathing


-coughing?

what causes difficulty breathing during an asthma attack?

the smooth muscle of the bronchioles contract and a large amount of mucus is produced

What causes wheezing during an asthma attack?

the constriction of the bronchioles means air passing though makes a whistling sound

what causes a tight chest during an asthma attack?

the inability to ventilate lungs properly- air flow in and out of the lugs is severely reduced due to constricted bronchioles and mucus meaning that only a small amount of oxygen passes into the alveoli and then into the blood

What causes coughing in an asthma attack?

constricted bronchioles- coughing is the reflex response to constriction of the bronchioles

what is asthma?

a respiratory condition where the alveoli become inflamed and irritated?

What causes the onset of an asthma attack?

number of different things:


-exercise


-dust


-pet hair


(basically an allergic reaction)

What is emphysema?

a lung disease which causes breathing difficulties.

what are the main causes of emphysema?

-smoking


-long-term exposure to air pollution

How does emphysema develop and cause breathing difficulties?

1) foreign particles in smoke or in the air become trapped in the alveoli- which causes inflammation


2) inflammation attracts phagocytes to the area


3) Phagocytes produce an enzyme which breaks down elastin


4)this means that the alveoli can't recoil and expel air as well


5)this means that air is left trapped in the alveoli


6) the destruction of the alveoli wall also leads to a decrease in surface area which therefore leads to a reduced rate of gas exchange.

describe the role played by phagocytes in the development in emphysema.

When the alveoli become inflamed- due to foreign particles being trapped in them- phagocytes are attracted to the area


phagocytes release an enzyme which breaks down the elastin- this means that the alveoli aren't able to recoil and expel air as well causes air to be trapped in the lungs- as the destruction of the alveoli walls also causes a decrease in surface area which causes a decrease in gas exchange rate .

What are the symptoms of emphysema?

-shortness of breath


-chronic cough


-bluish skin

What causes the shortness of breath in emphysema?

a loss of elastin which means the lungs cannot exhale as much air


decreased s/a which causes rapid breathing

What causes a chronic cough in emphysema?

it is the body's reflex reaction as an attempt to remove damaged tissue from the body as the cilia have been destroyed

What causes blueish skin in emphysema?

a reduced amount of oxygen

what is fibrosis?

the formation of scar tissue in the lungs

What can cause fibrosis?

infection, exposure to substance such as asbestos and dust

how does the formation if scar tissue lead to the symptoms of fibrosis?

-scar tissue is thicker, and less elastic, than normal lung tissues


-this means that the lungs have a reduced ability to expand and therefore the potential volume of the lungs is reduced


-in addition this /\ also means that it is harder for the lungs to force air out and so some air becomes trapped in the lungs


-this means that there is a reduces gas exchange rate as it is harder to ventilate, and therefore maintain a constant diffusion gradient, in the lungs- and because of an increased thickness of the membrane

what are the symptoms of fibrosis?

-chronic, dry cough


-shortness of breath


-chest pain


-weakness and fatigue

What causes a chronic, dry cough in fibrosis?

-scar tissue creates an obstruction and the body's reflex response to this to cough to try and remove it

What causes chest pain in fibrosis?

the press of the scar tissue and the scaring from coughing

What causes weakness and fatigue in fibrosis?

a decreased intake of oxygen due to the lungs reduced ability to expand which means less cellular respiration

what causes shortness of breath in fibrosis?

the air space in the lungs is occupied by scar tissue- this thicker epithelium increases the diffusion distance and reduces the elasticity of the lungs- this means that the veneration and subsequent maintenance of a dissuasion gradient is difficult

what is pulmonary TB?

a lung disease caused by bacteria

What bacteria causes pulmonary TB?

mycobacterium tuberculosis

How is pulmonary TB spread?

via droplet form

-when an infected person coughs or sneezes small droplets of mucus and saliva are released from the mouth and nose


-if an uninfected person inhales these droplets the bacteria are passed on



Where do rates of pulmonary TB tend to be higher and why?

LEDC's where overcrowding, poor living conditions and poor hygiene are widespread


-because the bacteria are more easily spread if more people are closer together and if there are less ways of preventing the disease spreading



what are the two phases of a pulmonary TB infection?

primary infection and secondary infection

describe the primary infection of pulmonary TB

when a person is infected by the bacteria the bacteria begin to multiply in the lung tissue producing lumps in the wall formers by immune cells around the bacterium


this triggers a response from the body's immune system


the immune system repines and phagocytes ingest the bacterium


the bacterium stops replicating and lies dormant


the lymph nodes in that area become inflamed

describe the secondary infection of pulmonary TB

later in life when the immune system becomes depressed e.g. from old age or disease e.g. HIV- the bacteria begin to replicate again


-the bacteria destroy lung tissue thus leading to cavities and scaring


-the surface area of the alveoli are reduced which means that oxygen diffusion is decreased


-the damage may also allow the bacteria to enter the blood stream and thus spread to other parts of the body

what are the symptoms of pulmonary TB?

-persistent cough


-weight loss


-loss of appetite


-fever


-chest pain


-coughing up mucus and/or blood



What is pulmonary ventilation?

the volume of air inhaled in one minuet

What is tidal volume?

the volume of air inhaled in one breath

what is ventilation rate?

the number of breaths per min

what is the equation for pulmonary ventilation?

PV=TVxVR

what are monoclonal antibodies?

antibodies that can be used to target specific substances on cells

what are monoclonal antibodies produced from? what does this mean?

a single group of genetically identical B-cells- which means that they are all identical in structure

Why are antibodies very specific?

their binding site is a unique structure as it is made from specific amino acids sequences so that each variable site has a specific complementary shape to a specific antigen.

what can monoclonal antibodies bind to?

anything

Describe how monoclonal antibodies could be used as a cancer treatment.

different cells in the body have different surface antigens


cancer cells have antigens called tumour markers that are not found on normal body cells


monoclonal antibodies can be made that will bind to the tumour markers


this means that you can attract anti-cancer drugs to monoclonal antibodies and then those monoclonal antibodies will only bind to the tumour markers because that is the only shape that is specific to their binding site


this means that the anti-cancer drugs can destroy the cancer without affecting other rapidly dividing cells in the body such as hair cells

Describe how monoclonal antibodies can be used in pregnancy tests

pregnancy gets are used to detect the hormone hCG- this hormone is found in the urine of pregnant women


the application area of the test contains antibodies for hCG which are bound to a colour bead (blue)


when urine is applied to the application area any hCG will bind to the antibodies on the beads creating a antigen-antibody complex


the test strip contains antibodies to hCG that are mobilised


so if there is any hCG present the test strip turns blue because the imobilised antibodies bind to the hCG- thus concentrating the hCG antibody complex with blue beads


if no hCG is present the beads will pass through the test area without being bound to anythings so therefore won't turn blue.

what are the enzymes involved in digestion?

-amylase


-maltase


-sucrease


-lactase

Where is amylase produced?

-salivary glands


-pancreas

where is maltase produced?

-lining of the small intestine

where is sucrase produced?

small intestine

what are specific responses?

immune responses with mechanisms that can distinguish between different pathogens




what is the advantage of specific responses over non-specific responses?

they are longer lasting

what is the disadvantage of specific responses compared to non-specific?


it is less rapid

What are the two types of response involved in specific responses?

-cell medicated


-humoral

which types of lymphocytes are involved in cell mediated responses?

T-lymphocytes

Which type of lymphocytes are involved in humeral responses?

B lymphocytes

Where are all lymphocytes formed?

stem cells

where do B lymphocytes mature?

bone marrow

where do T Lymphocytes mature?

thymus gland

what is the role of B lymphocytes?

-produce antibodies


-respond to foreign material outside body cells


-respond to bacteria and viruses

What is the role of T lymphocytes?

-responds to foreign material inside the body cells


-responds to own cells infected by viruses or cancer and transplant organs

Why are T lymphocytes able to distinguish between invader cells and normal body cells?

1) because phagocytes will have engulfed and broken down the pathogen and therefore some of the pathogens antigens will be present of the phagocytes own cell surface membrane


2)because body cells invades by a virus will also have some of the viruses antigens present on their own cell-surface membranes


3)cancer cells also present antigens on their cell surface membrane

what is the term used to describe cells that can present antigens of other cells on their own cell surface membrane

antigen-presenting cells

what are antigen presenting cells?

cells that can present antigens of other cells on their own cell surface membrane

which type of antigens do T lymphocytes respond to?

those that are attached to a body cell

what are the products of cell mediated impunity?

-memory T-lymphocytes


-Helper T-cells

What is the role of memory T-lympohcytes?

they circulate in the blood and tissue fluid to ensue of a rapid response in the future if the same pathogen enters the body again

what is the role of helper t-lympohcytes?

they stimulate B-lympohocyes to divide (clone)

by what process do lymphocytes divide?


mitosis

How do T-lymphocytes kill infected cells?

1)they produce a protein that makes holes in the cell surface membrane of the infected cell


2)the holes make the cell fully permeable to all substances, which causes the cell to die


3)as viruses need a living body cell in order to reproduce- the sacrifice of a body cell prevents this reproduction and subsequent further infection of other cells

what does cell mediated immunity involve the production of that humoral responses don't?

the production on antibodies

do T-lympphocytes produce antibodies?

no

do B lymphocytes produce antibodies?

yes

how many types of B-lymphocytes are there? why?

10's of millions- because each type produces a different antibody that is specific to a specific antigen

by what process do B-lymphocytes divide?

mitosis

what 2 types of cells are produced from the cloning of B-lympohocytes?

-plasma cells


-B memory cells

what are plasma cells?

clones of B-lymphocytes that secrete antibodies

what are plasma cells responsible for and why?

the immediate defence of the body against infection (primary response)- because the antibodies secreted by the palm cells destroy the pathogen and any toxins produced by forming antigen-antibody complexes with the antigens on the cell surface membrane of the invading cells

what are B memory cells?

clones of B cells that are used for the secondary response

Do B memory cells secrete antibodies?

-not directly- but they circulate the body in the blood and tissue fluid so when they encounter a pathogen that has been entered before (the same antigen) they divide rapidly into plasma cells and more memory cells so that the plasma cells produce the antibodies needed to destroy the pathogen

what is the role of


-plasma cells


-memory B-lymphocytes


in humoral responses?

-plasma cells secrete the antibodies to combine with the antigens on the cell surface membranes of pathogens to make antigen-antibody complexes and therefore destroy the pathogen


-memory B cells circulate the body in the blood and tissue fluid to create a readiness for s secondary encounter of a pathogen.