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24 Cards in this Set

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What are fungi?

1. achlorophylous (heterotrophic) organisms


2. have microscopic filaments called hyphae/mycelia


3. reproduce with spores (both sexual & asexual)


4. obtain nutrition though absorptive processes. Digest outside body then ingest.

Common name for four popular medicinal mushrooms and their health benefits.

1. ophiocordyceps sinensis: chinese & tibetan medicine for 1000 yrs.


-many ailments, including cancer and fatigue


-aphrodisiac and erectile dysfunction


2. grifola frondosa: enhances immune system, regulates blood pressure/glucose/insulin/cholesterol, high in K/Ca/Mg/Vitamins B,D & niacin


3. phellinus linteus: anti-breast cancer activity


4. trametes versicolor: anti-cancer, polysaccharide-K (anti-cancer activity)

How Penicillium reshaped the 20th century.

-discovered by Alexander Fleming while studying staphylococcus


-affected many gram-positive bacteria


-first came into use in WWII


-decreased infant mortality (increased earth population)


-created superbugs/antibiotic resistant drugs

Cultural impact of coffee rust since it's discovery and description in 1869.

-first reported in Ceylon in 1869 on cultivated coffee trees


-discovered in western hemisphere in 1970 in Brazil


-today: 500 mil people utilize coffee for income

Lifecycle of wheat stem rust

-Puccinia graminis basidiomycete: creates lesions, rust postures covered by urediospores


-Spermatia & aceiaspores formed on barberry ONLY: transferred to wheat


-Urediospores and teliospores formed on wheat and then transferred to barberry (basidiospores form on teliospores)


-Control:


--eradication of barberry


--plant only resistant wheat that will grow around sporulation time period of P. graminis



Skin infections by dermatophytes

-fungal infection via the skin


-use keratin as a source of nutrition


-most common dermatophyte disease tinea pedis (athlete's foot) caused by tricophyton rubrum


-ringworm, jock itch, fungal follicutis of the scalp/beard/legs, nail infection (all also caused by tricophyton rubrum)

Two benefits a plant receives from its mycorrhizal association. Two benefits a fungus receives from its mycorrhizal association.

Plant benefits:


-water


-nutrients




Fungus benefits:


-sugar


-carbon

5 primary divisions of fungi & 1 feature of each phylum

1. chytridiomycota: strange little water molds


2. glomeromycota: mycorrhizal symbionts with plant roots


3. zygomycota: black bread molds & other oddities


4. ascomycota: most molds & the yeasts (biggest group of fungi)


5. basidiomycota: charismatic fungi (mushrooms we eat) and rust

4 reasons why chestnuts are so important to people & wildlife living in Appalachian Mountains.

-tannin


-lumber


-nuts


-loss of work


-provided habitats: many species went extinct/neared extinction

2 similarities and 2 differences between chestnut blight & dutch elm disease

Similarities:


-both caused by ascomycetes


-both initially from Asia


---Dutch elm introduced from Europe


---Chestnut blight introduced form Japan


Differences:


-CB does not affect root systems


-Dutch Elm causes death, ultimately


-Chestnut were more important forest ecology & their loss led to habitat, food source loss


-Dutch Elm more urban trees

Four commonly eaten mushroom species

1. morel


2. chanterelle


3. porcini


4. truffle

Four steps in the production of commercial button mushrooms.

1. create a nutrient source or substrate, selective for mushroom


2. inoculate this substrate with fungal spores, so it will dominate


3. manage environment to favor initial growth, nutrient fertilization


4. manage environment to favor periodic mushroom initiation- use casing layer

What are lichens and why should we take closer notice of these organisms?

Lichen: association between a fungus and photosynthetic partner (mycobiont & photobiont)


Importance:


-fungus allow algae to live in a huge variety of environments


-absorb pollutants: reduce amount we are absorbing and act as markers for pollutant levels


-components of soil crusts

Select one member of the slime molds and discuss their impact on science or society.

Physarium: can move through maze towards food


-largest single celled organism on earth


-chooses best food


-builds perfectly optimized routes


---city planning (Tokyo)


---grows back up roots to make sure some damages


-living computers


---memrister: remembers what you are doing when you stop the computer


-robot controlled by slime mold

7 major taxonomic categories used in classification of every living thing. 2 categories used in binomial nomenclature

-Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species


-genus & species

How has Saccharomyces cerevisiae impacted and shaped human societies over the course of the last 2000+ yrs.

-Brewing: Oregon in 2013 made the fungus ita official state microbe due to the impact that craft beer has had on the state


-Baking: S. cerevisiae is used as a yeast for baking. Its production of CO2 during sugar digestion makes bread rise during the baking process


-Nutritional aid/supplement: provides a variety of vitamins, including B, chromium, and selenium, all very important to healthy body function


-Medical/scientific studies: researchers have used S. cerevisiae as a model for studying cellular processes (cell function & protein purification)

Which two fungal genera have played a major role in the human spiritual experience? Provide four specific examples of their use

Psilocybe mushrooms:


-meso-america uses, known as the divine mushroom, served at coronation of moctezuma II in 1502


-native americans used it in ceremonies


Claviceps purpurea

Describe the political, social & biological conditions that contributed to the Irish potato famine and how this event altered both Ireland & the US

-P. infestans


-Ireland controlled, exploited by Britain


-Potato introduced from South America, farmers can grow 3x as much food/acre


- Pop. of Ireland doubles in 30 yrs


-1844: late blight in US


-1845: late blight in Ireland


----many starved and died


----Britain did not help


----2 mill Irish began immigrating to the US


----1 mill die from starvation


----Irish independence from England in 1918

5 factors that influence indoor fungal contamination.

-outdoor concentration and type


-type and rate of ventilation


-activity levels


-modern building materials


----ceiling tiles, sheetrock, and other building materials seem to be prone to fungal contamination


----high cellulose content


-indoor moisture levels


----availability of moisture most critical factor in determining if fungi will grow


----leaks & moisture seeping through walls, ceilings, basements obvious source of problems

Draw a typical mushroom, name 5 parts of this typical mushroom morphology.

-cap


-scales


-margin


-gills, pores, spines


-ring


-spores


-stem


-volva, base

List 4 ways in which fungi intersect or impact human lives & society.

-food


-hallucinagens


-supporting plant growth


-gas exchange with atmosphere


-medicine

Describe the lifecycle of ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea & its impact on society

Ergot of Rye


- C. purpurea forms sclerotia, mass of highly compacted hyphae. These can survive adverse conditions (over seasoning mechanisms)


----Germinate by producing stalked stroma which contain ascu and ascospores


-Wheat infesters, control with proper fertilization & growing resistant grain varieties


-Europe struggled with infestations of C. pup urea, resulting in less grain growth and poisoning from ergot (LSD)


----monks treated with uninfected bread


-Salem Witch Trials- 1962


----potentially due to an outbreak of ergotism


-Provence, France- 1950s


----initially thought to be appendicitis, 3 days later hospitals were full


----all patients from 3 villages- bread from same baker(contained 20 poisonous alkaloids)

Phytophthora ramorum is currently restricted to coastal Cali. What disease does it cause and what attributes of this pathogen should be cause for concern to us on the east coast?

Sudden Oak Death


-discovered in Cali on Oaks


-dominant plants in their environment and keystone species


-Symptoms:


----causes stem lesions beneath the bark


----bleeding and oozing


----death


-Eradication is difficult


-East coast should be worried because P. ramorum has infected Californian nurseries that send out plants across the country


----1.6 mill potentially infected plants shipped nationwide


----positive infestation sites have detected on the east coast

3 categories of treatments used in biocontrol of insects by fungi.

Permanent Introduction


-Example: control of gypsy moth by Entomophaga maimaiga


Inoculative Augmentation


-Example: control of pine moth by Beauveria bassiana


Conservation or Environmental Manipulation


-Example: control of alfalfa beetle by Erynia