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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List 3 characteristics of most viral infections
1. cause mild symptoms
2. cause no symptoms
3. do not require extensive treatment
List 4 common viral diseases
1. common cold
2. influenza
3. flulike syndromes
4. gastroenteritis
List 3 characteristics of other viral infections that target essential tissues and organs
1. very cytolytic
2. induce immunopathologic effects
3. can cause serious & even life-threatening disease
In general, the symptoms & severity of a viral infection are determined by which 3 things?
1. the patient's ability to prevent or rapidly resolve the infection before the virus can reach important organs or cause significant damage
2. the target tissue & virulence of the virus
3. the ability of the body to repair the damage
Viral diseases are discussed with respect to which 3 things?
1. with respect to their symptoms
2. the organ system they target
3. the host factors that influence their presentation
(previous chapters stressed the viral characteristics that promote disease)
List the major sites of viral disease
1. respiratory tract
2. gastrointestinal tract
3. epithelial
4. mucosal
5. endothelial linings of the skin, mouth & genitalia
6. lymphoid tissue
7. liver & other organs
8. central nervous system (CNS)
What are the 2 most common sites of viral infection and disease
1. oropharynx
2. respiratory tract
How are viruses spread?
1. in respiratory droplets & aerosols
2. food & water
3. saliva
4. by close contact
5. on hands
Similar respiratory symptoms can be caused by several different viruses
Respiratory tract pathogens = wide range of organisms
Which viruses are capable of causing bronchiolitis?
1. respiratory syncytial
2. parainfluenza virus
One virus may cause different symptoms in different people
Respiratory tract pathogen = wide range of symptoms in different people
Which virus can cause a mild upper respiratory tract infection in one person and a life-threatening pneumonia in another?
influenza virus
*Viral infections may be divided into two main groups
* localized- only at the port of entry
* systemic- from port of entry to the target organ
Symptoms & severity of a respiratory viral disease depend on what 4 things?
1. nature of the virus
2. site of infection (upper or lower respiratory tract)
3. immune status
4. the age of the person
How do conditions such as cystic fibrosis and smoking increase the risk of serious disease?
conditions compromise the ciliated and mucosoepithelial barriers to infection
What are the two most common viral presentations?
1. pharyngitis
2. oral disease
What is the site of infection for most enteroviruses?
Oropharynx
How do enteroviruses progress to other target tissues?
by way of a viremia
Define viremia
the presence of a virus in the blood. ???sepsis (bloostream infection)
List symptoms of Coxsackie A virus infections, Cocksackie B virus, and echovirus infections?
accute onset pharyngitis, fever, & oral vesicular lesions (herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease)
List characteristics of Adenovirus and the early stages of EBV disease
sore thoat and tonsillitis with an exudative membrane, and then EBV infects B lymphocytes to cause infectious mononucleosis.
HSV causes....
1. local primary infections of the oral mucosa & face (gingivostomatitis) and then establishes a
2. latent neuronal infection that can recur in the form of herpes labialis (cold sores, fever blisters)
HSV local primary infections
oral mucosa & face (gingivostomatitis)
HSV latent neuronal infections
can recur in the form of herpes labialis (cold sores, fever blisters)
HSV is also a common cause of...
pharyngitis
What are Koplik's spots?
vesicular lesions on the buccal mucosa & are an early diagnostic feature of measles infection.
List an early diagnostic feature of measles infection
Koplik's spots (vesicular lesions on the buccal mucosa)
Which viruses intiate infection in the lung and can cause pneumonia but generally cause systemic infections resulting in an exanthem (rash)?
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) & measles virus
List two things Varicella-zoster virus and measles virus have in common?
These viruses initiate infection in the lung and can cause pneumonia but generally cause systemic infections resulting in an exanthem (rash)
What is an exanthem?
Rash
List viruses that establish primary infection of the oropharynx or respiratory tract and then progress to other sites
-rubella, mumps, enteroviruses, and several human herpesviruses-herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)
Many viral infections start in the oropharynx or respiratory tract, infect the lung, and spread without causing significant symptoms.
***
Which viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are benign?
1. the common cold
2. pharyngitis
Upper respiratory tract viral infections
account for at least 50% of absenteeism from schools and the workplace.
Which viral diseases are the predominant causes of upper respiratory tract infections?
rhinoviruses and coronaviruses
List Typical symptoms of the common cold
runny nose (rhinitis) followed by congestion, cough, sneezing, conjunctivitis, headache, and sore throat
What is rhinitis?
runny nose
List other causes of the common cold & pharyngitis
specific serotypes of echoviruses & Coxsackie viruses, adenoviruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, & respiratory syncytial virus.