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129 Cards in this Set

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Osmotic Pressure

imbalance of molecules on either side of the membrane; directly proportional to the number of solute atoms and not dependent on the size of them


process of maintanence of salt and water balance (osmotic balance) across membranes within the body's fluids; movement of excess elec trolytes and wastes are transported to the kidneys and excreted


a solute that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water

hypotonic solution

cell placed in low salt enviornment swells with water

hypertonic solution

cell placed in high salt environment shrivels as water rushes out


equal concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell

electrolyte concentration units

miliequivalents per liter= ion concentration (milimoles) x # of electrical charges; takes into consideration the number of ions and their charges; set point for body fluids is within 280-300 mOsm

euryhaline organisms

can tolerate a relatively wide ranfe of salinity


allows for organisms to survive in all kinds of aquatic environments

freshwater osmoregulatory

bodies tend to take up water due to hypotonic environment so organisms do not drink much water, pass very dilute urine and achieve electrolyte balance by active transport of salts through the gills

saltwater osmoregulatory

when in salt water hypertonic envioronment water is rushing out of the fish, so kidneys retain water; organisms start to drink salt water & excess salts are excreted through gills and urine (concentrated)


organisms isotonic with sea water; there body fluid concentrations conform to changes in seawater concentration


filter blood and purify it; excrete waste, maintain water and recieve hormones


filtrate coming out of kidneys

Kidney tissue layers

renal fascia, fat capsule, renal capsule

renal fascia

outermost layer, tough connective tissue layer

fat capsule

second layer, helps to anchor kidneys in place

renal capsle

innermost layer

Internal kidney regions

renal cortex (outer kidney), renal medulla (middle kindey), renal pelvis (in hillum region)


concave part of the kidney where blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter/exit the kidney


functional unit of the kidney; made up of renal corpuscle, renal tbule, capillary network

renal corpuscle

located in renal cortex, made up of a network of capillaries (glomerulus) and bowman's capsule

renal tubule

proximal convuluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convuluted tubule, collecting ducts


almost all solutes (excluding proteins and large cells) are filtered out of the glomerulus due to high blood presure and specialized membranes


filtrate is collected in the renal tubules and most of the solutes (sodium, glucose, water) get reabsorbed in the PCT due to low blood pressure and high osmotic pressure in capillaries


additional solutes and wastes are secreted into the kidney tubules; collecting ducts collect filtrate coming from the nephrons


urine is delivered to the renal pelvis and out the ureter; rid the body of nitrogenous metabolites

excess nitrogen waste

can form toxic ammonia, which raises pH of body fluids

urea cycle

in terrestrial animals; primary mechanism by which mammals convert ammonia to urea which is made in the liver and excreted in urine

uric cycle

in birds and reptiles; convert ammonia to uric acid; least toxic but requires most energy

loop of henle

makes renal medulla salty by actively pumping out salt/ions, this results in water rushing out into the medulla only on one side where there are aquaporins


fewer solutes on the inside versus the outside of the cell


more solutes on the inside versus outside of the cell


passes through the system if it doesn't pass thoguh the external opening; similar to human intestines; internal opening brings things in and the hole lets things out (annelids)

malpighian tubules

insects are good at reabsorbing their water; insides have more hemolin; structure is long and thin with no circulation/filtration (terrestrial anthropods)

aquatic animal excretion


lipid-derived hormones

derived from cholesterol; steroid hormones that are insoluble in water, transferred by transport proteins in blood and remain in circulation longer (estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol)

peptide hormones

chain of amino acids (ADH, oxytocin, GH, FSH, insulin)

amino acid-derived hormones

small, synthesized in medulla of adrenal and pineal glands (epinephrine, norepinephrine, melatonin)


the number of receptors increases in response to rising hormone levels, making the cell more sensitive to the hormone and allowing for more cellular activity


when number of receptors decreases in response to rising hormone levels, cellular activity is reduced.


located in brain, recieves most nerve signals; control center (ADH, oxytocin)

pituitary gland

below hypothalamus; master gland sends out signals from hypothalamus to the rest of the body; anterior and posterior pituitary have different functions


located in neck; regulates metabolism (T3 and T4)


regulates blood calcim level (PTH)

adrenal glands

on top of kidneys; adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla have different functions

adrenal cortex

produces steroids (cortisol and aldosterone)

adrenal medulla

produces catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine)


produces hormones involved in development of secondary sex characteristics and processes involved (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone)


not involved directly with piuitary; regulates blood sugar (insulin, glucagon)

autocrine hormone

function ar cell it is located

paracrine hormone

functions regionally

endocrine hormone

functions at distance

antidieretic hormone (ADH)

excretory system; transported to and released from posterior pituitary; made to regulate the amount of water excreted by the kidneys by making the tubules more permeable to water by temporarily inserting aquaporins


excretory system; steroid; released and produced by adrenal cortex; enhances sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion from extracellular fluid of the cells of the kidney tubules; stimulated by decrease in blood sodium levels ot blood volume/pressure

what happens when the kidneys detect low blood pressure?

kidney cells release renin which is an enzyme that reacts with angiotensinogen, a plasma protein in the liver, which converts it to angio I, then angio II in the lungs, which functions as a hormone that causes the release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex (look at aldosterone to see how it regulates the blood pressure)


reproductive system; produced in the hypothalamus which then stimulates the production and release of FSH and LH in the anterior pituitary

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

reproductive system; stimulates gamete production (maturation of sperm cells ot development of egg cells)


reproductive; stimulates production of hormones by the gonads (andorgens and estrogens)


reproductive; stimulates production of milk by mammary glands following childbirth


reproductive; released by posterior piuitary and stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth


metabolism; produced by beta cells in the pancreas, which are stimulated to release insulin as blood glucose levels rise. This enhances rate of glucose uptake and causes liver to convert glucose to glycogen which is stored in cells for later use; muscle, fat and liver are main destinations for insulin and have insulin receptors that once activated open glucose transport channels

Type I Diabetes

immune system attacks beta cells causing them to be unable to produce insulin and high blood sugar damages tissues


metabolism; released from alpha cells of the pancreas which raises blood glucose levels and stimulates breakdown of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis)

T3 and T4

thyroid; transported across membrane of target cells and binds to receptors on mitochondria resulting in increased ATP rates of production and increased rates of metabolism and body heat production; require iodides to be synthesized


thyroid; stimulates release of T3 and T4


caused by overproduction of TSH without formation of T3 or T4


underproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to weight gain and mental retardation


overproductioncan lead to weight loss and Grove's disease

high blood calcium levels

membrane permeability to sodium decreases and membranes become less responsive

low blood calcium levels

sodium permeability increses and colvulsions/muscle spasms can result

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

regulates blood calcium levels; is released in response to low calcium levels and targets the skeleton (stimulates osteoclasts which causes bone to be reabsorbed releasing calcium from the bone into the blood), intestines (increases dietary calcium absorption), and kidneys (stimulates reabsorption of calcium)


decreases blood calcium levels by inhigiting osteoclasts, stimulating osteoblasts and stimulating calcium excretion by the kidneys; most important during chilhood, pregnancy, and prolonged periods of starvation

growth hormone (GH)

produed by anterior pituitary; accelerates rate of protein syntesis (particularally in skeletal muscles and bones)

glucose-sparing effect from GH release

stimulaties triglyceride breakdown which switches body from using glucose to using fatty acids for energy

diabetogenic effect from GH release

stimulates glycogen breakdown in liver

insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

mediate GH; stimulate uptake of amino acids from blood, allowing formation of new proteins

short-term stress response

epinephrine and norepinephrine released by adrenal medulla by increasing blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver and skeletal muscles to break down glycogen and also increase oxygen availability by increasing heart rate; prioritize blood flow to essential organs

long-term stress response

hypothalamus triggers release of ACTH from anterior pituitary which then stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids


increases glucose metabolism/synthesis and have anti-inflammatory properties (cortisol)


regulate ion and water balance of body (aldosterone)

humoral stimuli

mechanism of hormone production and release; in response to changes in extracellular fluids (blood glucose levels)

hormonal stimuli

mechanism of hormone production and release; in response to another hormone (TSH stimulating release of T3 and T4)

neural stimuli

mechanism of hormone production and release; nervous system directly stimulates endocrine glands to release hormones (short term stress response)

anterior pituitary

produces tropic hormones, connected to hypothalamus by capillary network

posterior pituitary

directly connected to hypothalamus; releases and stores hormones produced by hypothalamus (ADH, oxytocin) into blood stream

Asexual reproduction

produces offspring that are genetically identical to parent

advantages: effective in quick mass production of offspring that will be well adapted to stable environment, allows for mutation, easier colonization of new habitats, requires less metabolic energy

disadvantages: lack of genetic variation decreases adaptability to changing conditions


asexual; after a period of growth (mitosis), and organism splits into two seperate organisms (sea anenomes, coral polyps)


asexual; results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals (hydra)


asexual; the breaking og the body into two parts with subsequent regeneration(sea stars)


asexual; an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized; resulting offspring can be wither haploid or diploid depending on process/speices

bee parthenogenesis example

bees produce either haploid males (drones) or diploid femails (workers); if the egg is fertilized, a queen in charge of mating is produced

sexual reproduction

genetic material of two individuals is combined to produces genetically diverse offspring that differ from their parents

advantages: allows for better chance of survival based off higher adaptability to unpredictable environments, genetic diseases leave population quicker

disadvantages: maintenance of different sexes can limit ability to colonize new habitats since both sexes must be present


sexual; occurs in animals with both male and female reproductive parts; capanle of both self-fertilization (common in animals with little to no mobility) and mate (worms, slugs, barnacles)

Sex determination mammals

genetic; XX is female; XY male

sex determination birds

genetic; ZZ is male; ZW is female (also used in some fish, crustaceans, moths/butterflies, and reptiles)

environmental sexual determination

not determined by genetics but instead dependent on temperatire during critical egg development period (in turtles warm temperature result in females)


capable of changing sex during life but it female first


capable of changing sex during life but is male first

external fertilization

occurs outside female's body; usually occurs in aquatic environments where both egg and sperm are released in the water (spawning)

internal fertilization

occurs inside female's body; occurs most often in land-based animals; advantage of protection from dehydration and predation and higher survival rates; disadvantage of less offspring produced


in some insects; specialized sac that stores sperm for later use, sometimes up to a year, which allows fertilization to be timed with optimal env/food conditions for offspring survival


common in non-mammal vertabarates; body opening for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive system


evolved reproductive organs that produce sperm and eggs


occurs in walls of the seminiferous tubules; immediatly under capsule of tubules are undfferentiated cells called spermaogonium; continuous process through life

stage one spermatogenesis

spermatagonium go through mitosis and one ofspring goes on to differentiate into a sperm cell and the other gives rise to the next generation of sperm

stage 2 spermatogenesis

meiosis starts witha primary spermatocyte and at the end of the first meiotic division a haplod cell is produced called a secondary spermatocyte

stage 3 spermatogenesis

secondary spermatocyte undergoes another meiotic cell division and produces a cell called a spermatid; once the spermatid reaches the lumen of the tube and grows a flagellum it is called a sperm cell

How many sperm cells result from each primary spermatocyte & how long does it take to develop

four sperm cells, can take up to 7 weeks to develop

gonadotropic hormones

cause activation of stem cells to produce viable sperm


occurs in outermost layers of ovaries; starts with oogenium

oogenesis before birth

oogonium undergoes mitosis to increase number, eventually resulting in about 1-2 million cells in the embryo (primary oocyte) arrested at prophase of meiosis

After puberty oogenesis stage 1

the primary oocyte will start first meiotic division when anterior pituitary hormones cause development of follicles in ovaries which allows for primary oocyte to complete first meiotic division; results in a secondary oocyte and and polar body

After puberty oogenesis stage 2

a secondary meiotic arrest occurs at metaphase II stage

After puberty oogenesis stage 3

at ovulation the secondary oocyte will be released and travel toward the uterus through the oviduct. If the secondary oocyte is fertilized the cell continues thought the meiosis II and produces a second polar body and a fertilized egg

when will GnRH be released in adolescence?

the body must reach puberty in order for hormones to be released by the adrenal glands that must be present for GnRH to be produced

Male Hormones (FSH)

enters testes and stimulates sertoli cells to begin facilitating spermatogenesis using negative feedback

Male Hormones (LH)

enters testes and stimulates the interstistial cells of Leydig to make and release testosterone into the testes and blood

serotoli cells

produce hormone inhibin and release into blood when sperm count is too high

inhibin hormone

inhibits release of GnRH and FSH which will cause spermatogenesis to slow down

Female Hormones (FSH)

stimulates development of egg cells (ova) which develop in follicles

Female Hormones (LH)

role in development of ova, induction of ovulation, and stimulation of estrdiol and progesterone production in the ovaries


inhibits FSH and LH release

Ovarian Cycle

governs the preperation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs

follicular phase

first half of ovarian cycle; slowly rising levels of FSH and LH cause growth of follicles on surface of the ovary, preparing egg for ouvlation; as follicles grow they release estrogen and low levels of progesterone to maintain endometrium to help ensure pregnancy

just prior to middle of ovarian cycle

around day 12; the high level of estrogen causes FSH and especially LH to rise rapidly then fall and this causes ovulation. The most mature follicle ruptures and releases its egg, the follicles that did not rupture degenerate and their eggs are lost; levels of estrogen decrease

luteal phase of ovarian cycle

after ovulation (days 15-28); cells in follicle undergo changes and produce corpus luteum which produces estrogen and progesterone to facilitate regrowth of uterine lining and inhibit FSH and LH to prevent further eggs and follicles from developing

luteal phase if no fertilized egg

corpus luteum degenerates into corpus albicans and estrogen/progesterone levels decrease which initiates next menstural cycle and allows for hypothalamus to release GnRH to pituitary which will release FSH and LH to start ovarian cycle again


(40s-50s); womens ovaries begin to lose their sensitivity to FSH and LH so they cannot produce a viable egg