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17 Cards in this Set

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Structures in which e- move easily to higher levels when energy is absorbed. Visible chromophores typically possess extended chains of conjugated double bonds

Cori Cycle

Process in which lactate is released by skeletal muscle during exercise and is transported to the liver for resynthesis of glucose

Diabetes Mellitus

Condition caused by hyposecretion of insulin. Characterised by hyperglycaemia increased urine production, excessive thirst and excessive eating

Electrochemical potential

The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and it's tendency to move relative to the membrane potential

Free energy

A quantity of energy that interrelates entropy and the systems total energy, the change in free energy of a system is calculated by the equation G = deltaH - TdeltaS where T is absolute temp


A peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels - antagonistic to insulin


The synthesis of glucose from non carbohydrate molecules


The biochemical pathway that results in the removal of glucose molecules from glycogen polymers when blood glucose levels are low


A type of protien filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction

Protonmotive force

The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis


The cytoplasm of a muscle fibre cell

Substrate level phosphorylation

The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from am intermediate substrate on catabolism


A regulatory protien that blocks the myosin binding sites of actin molecules when skeletal muscle is at rest


A set of regulatory protiens that control the position of tropomyosin on the thin filament of skeletal muscles

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

High CO2 affinity

Creates 4C intermediate including CO2


In high light intensity excess O2 is producee via photosynthesis

Plants consuming carbon, and adding this to the excessive O2 to remove the harmful O2


Crassulacean Acid Metabolism


Stores CO2 in organic acids at night

Release of CO2 during day --> Calvin Cycle