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106 Cards in this Set

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Biochemistry
The study of the chemical building blocks of living things
Matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
Element
a pure substance that has one type of atom
Trace element
elements essential to life but required in small amounts
compound
substances containing 2 or more elements chemically bonded together
atom
the building block of matter and the smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains the properties of that element
protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of the atom
electrons
negatively charged particles in orbitals around the atom
neutrons
neutral particles in nucleus of atom
nucleus
the core of the atom; contains protons and neutrons
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element; defines the element
mass number
refers to the mass of atoms; the total of protons and neutrons
bond
forms between 2 atoms when the electrons in the outer orbital give themselves to another atom or share with another atom to fill or empty the orbitals of both atoms
ionic bonds
formed when one atom gives away all the electrons in its outermost orbital, emptying that orbital and filling that of the other atom and giving them opposite and attracting charges
covalent bonds
forms when atoms share the electrons in their outermost orbitals
molecule
molecules form when 2 or more atoms are held together by a covalent or ionic bond
polar molecule
a molecule where opposite ends have opposite charges
hydrogen bond
a weak bond between hydrogen and the positive ends of molecules
cohesion
attraction between like molecules
adhesion
attraction between unlike molecules
surface tension
cohesion on the surface of water that creates a filmy boundary
solution
a mixture of two or more substances
solute
a substance that dissolves into a solution
solvent
a substance that dissolves another substance
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
acid
a substance that breaks apart to release H+ into a solution
base
a substance that breaks apart to release OH- into a solution
pH
a value on the pH scale that determines how acidic or basic a substance is
organic molecules
molecules containing C-H bonds
inorganic molecules
molecules not containing C-H bonds
organic macromolecules
really large molecules containing C-H bonds; found in living things
monomer
a small molecular subunit joined together into bigger molecules
polymer
a long chain of monomers joined together
dehydration synthesis
the reaction that joins monomers into polymers by removing water
hydrolysis
the reaction that breaks apart polymers into monomers
carbohydrates
an energy source for living things; starch, glucose, fructose, galactose, glycogen, cellulose
monosaccharide
a simple sugar that is used for quick energy
polysaccharide
a complex sugar that stores energy and is made up of monosaccharides
lipids
fats and steroids, hydrophobic, and made up of CHO
glycerol
the first building block of a fat that connects to three fatty acids
fatty acids
a CHO chain that joins with glycerol and two other fatty acids to make a fat
proteins
formed from combined amino acids put together in certain patterns; proteins form structures like nails, hair, muscle, etc.
amino acids
the monomers of proteins; made of CHON

amino acids:protein::yard:scarf
nucleic acids
polymers that make up DNA and RNA and store and transmit genetic information
nucleotides
the monomers of nucleic acids; consist of sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
enzymes
a very important protein that helps speed up chemical reactions in the body
denaturing
the process in which heat or the introduction of an extreme pH deforms an enzyme and leaves it useless
activation energy
"start up energy"; activates the reactants and triggers a chemical reaction
catalyst
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
substrate
a specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
active site
the place of an enzyme where a substrate fits
Chem. formula of water?
H2O
In a water molecule, which end has a negative charge? Which has the positive charge?
The oxygen end is neg. and hydrogen end is pos.
List the four life-supporting properties of water
1. Cohesion/adhesion
2. temperature moderation
3. low density of ice
4. ability to dissolve other substances
Why does water have the life-supporting properties that it does?
It is a polar molecule
How do cohesion and adhesion affect life?
1. Helps keep molecules organized
2. pulls h2o up a tree!
3. surface tension
How does sweating help you stay cool?
Water absorbs heat and evaporates off skin, taking heat with it.
How do hydrogen bonds help moderate temperature?
It takes a lot more energy to heat up water than to heat up other things
How is the solid form of water very different from that of other liquids?
Less dense in solid form than in liquid form
In terms of acids and bases, what is water?
Neutral, pH of 7
Compare and contrast acids and bases. How do they break down differently?
Acids break into H+, bases into OH-.
pH below 7=acid, above=base
acids taste sour, are corrosive to metals, and turn pH paper orange/red.
bases feel slippery, taste bitter, and turn pH paper green/blue
Why can carbon form such a wide variety of molecules?
It has 4 bonding sites, can create carbon chains
What 2 elements distinguish and organic molecule?
hydrogen and carbon
What is a functional group?
A group that is linked to a carbon atom to form a large variety of organic molecules
'mono--'
'one'
'di--'
'two'
'poly--'
'many'
'macro--'
'large'
'--mer'
'unit'
'--saccharide'
'sugar'
What are the 4 categories of organic macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
How does dehydration synthesis work?
Monomers are joined into polymers by removing water
How is hydrolysis different from dehydration synthesis?
It adds water and breaks polymers into monomers
What do enzymes do that is especially important to the body?
They speed up chemical reactions in the body, such as digesting food
How many functions can a specific enzyme perform?
One
What are enzymes like after they assist with a reaction compared to before?
They do not change
What determines an enzymes function and why?
Its shape--It is a protein
What causes denaturing?
Heat or and extreme pH
How does denaturing happen and what does it do to an enzyme?
High temperatures or an extreme pH affects the shape of an enzyme, leaving it useless
What four elements make up most of living things?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (CHON!)
Give 3 examples of monosaccharides. Give 3 examples of polysaccharides.
Mono: Glucose, fructose, galactose
Poly: starch, glycogen, cellulose
What makes up a fat?
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
When is a fat saturated? When is it unsaturated?
1. When all fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
2. When at least one of the 3 fatty acids has a double-bonded carbon-carbon and doesn't have the maximum hydrogen atoms
What states of matter are saturated and unsaturated fats?
saturated: solid (butter, lard, etc.)
unsaturated: liquid (oil)
Which is healthy and which is unhealthy: saturated and unsaturated fats?
unsaturated: healthy
saturated: unhealthy
Steroids and fats are both part of which organic macromolecule group?
Lipids
What do steroids do?
Chemical horomones, found in membranes around cells, chemical messengers
What do fats do?
Cushion organs, store energy for later use, and provide body w/ insulation
What are 3 good examples of steroids?
Estrogen, testosterone, cholesterol
What atoms make up the monomers of each kind of organic macromolecule?
Carbohydrates: CHO
Lipids: CHO
Proteins: CHON
Nucleic Acids: CHONP
What monomers make up the polymers in carbohydrates?
Simple sugars like glucose, fructose, and galactose
What monomers make up proteins?
Amino Acids
What analogy can you compare amino acids to proteins with? Why?
Amino acids:protein::yarn:scarf

Unless amino acids are in the right shape, they cannot do anything
What functions can proteins perform?
Form structures like hair, make up muscles, long-term nutrient storage, defend body from harmful microorganisms and control chemical reactions in a cell
What monomers make up nucleic acids?
Nucleotides
What makes up a nucleotide?
A ring-shaped sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
What atoms make up a nucleic acid?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate (CHONP)
What function does nucleic acid perform?
makes up DNA and RNA, stores and transmits genetic information
What type of carbohydrates does your body use for quick energy?
Monosaccharides
What type of carbohydrates does your body use for energy storage?
Polysaccharides
As what molecule do plants store polysaccharides?
Starch
As what molecule do animals store polysaccharides?
Glycogen
What is cellulose and why is it important?
It is a polysaccharide made of glucose monomers that serve as building blocks, protecting cells and stiffening the plant that contains it
What does hydrophobic mean and how does it apply to lipids?
Hydrophobic means water-resistant and it makes lipids avoid mixing with water, letting it act as a boundary that contains the aqueous content of cells
What is cholesterol and why is it important?
It is an essential steroid (lipid) that surrounds cells in the cell membrane and is that starting point of the creation of other steroids
What are the three basic groups attached to the central carbon of an amino acid?
The amino group, the carboxyl group, and the side group