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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is True of the properties of triacylglycerols?

A- They are chemically reactive
B- They readily diffuse across cell membranes
C- They are soluble in water
D- They generate more energy than the same weight of carbohydrate
D. They have an energy of complete oxidation more than twice that for the same weight of carbohydrate
Ingested triacylglycerols are emulsified in the intestine by
A- Chylomicrons
B- bile salts
C- lipases
D- apolipoproteins
what effect does the hormone glucagon have on fatty acid metabolism?

A- it triggers the mobilization of stored fats
B- it triggers the conversion of triacylglycerols to glucose
C- It triggers the conversion of glucose into triacylglycerols
D- It triggers the storage of triacylglycerols
Glucagon, along with epi, is secreted in response to low blood glucose levels and activates a cascade of events that leads to the mobilization of triacylglycerols in adipose tissue. IN this cascade, _________ ________ is activated, causing the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols into fatty acids, which enter the bloodstream for transport to other _______
triacylglycerol lipase
Which of the following is TRUE of acyl-COA synthetases?

A- They hydrolyze pyropphsophate
B- They are located in the mitochondrial matrix
C- They activate fatty acids for oxidation
D- They join fatty acids to CoA by a phosphoester linkage
acyl-CoA synthetases attach coenzyme A to ______ ______, turning them into fatty acyl-CoA esters that are activated for oxidation in the mitochondria
fatty acids
Carnitine is used for...
transport of fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
carnitine is used for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (with ____ or more carbons) through the inner mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondrial matrix, where they undergo _____ _________. Activated fatty acid-CoA esters formed in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria cannot cross the inner mitochondrial membrane intact. Instead, the fatty acyl group is transiently atached to the _______ group of _______ to form fatty acyl carnitine, which enter the matrix by facilitated diffusion through the acyl-carnitine/carnitine transporter. Once inside the matrix, the fatty acyl group is enzymatically transferred from _______ to _____ to activate the fatty acid for beta oxidation.
beta oxidation
the 3rd carbon is the ____ carbon
(carbonyl, alpha, beta)
the first step of beta-oxidation, catalyzed by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, involves

A- the formation of a double bond
B- the formation of a carboxyl group
C- the formation of a hydroxyl grouo
D- the input of H20
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase removes two hydroges from the ____ and ____ carbons of a fatty acyl-CoA, creating a ____ double bond between those two carbon atoms.

This double bond is needed for the action of the next enzyme in the beta-oxidation pathway, ______ ______, which adds H2O across this double bond.
alpha, beta
enoyl-CoA hydratase
so what enzyme adds a double bond?
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
what enzyme adds whater?
enoyl-COA hydratase
each beta-oxidation cycle generates ___ molecule of NADH, ____ molecule of FADH2, and ___ moleucle of acetyl-COA, except for the last beta-oxidation cycle, which results in ___ molecules of acetyl-CoA.

Therefore, a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid will be completely oxidized by ____ beta-oxidation cycles, generating ____ molecules lf Acetyl-CoA
7, 8
what enzyme is needed for fatty acids that contain CIS double bonds? (the CIS fatty acid must be converted to the trans configuration in order for beta-oxidation to continue)

The enoyl-CoA hydratase step of the beta-oxidation cycle will act ONLY upon a _____ double bond.

An 18 carbon fatty acid chain with a double bond at carbon 9 can undergo ______ passes through the fatty acid oxidation cycle to yield three molecules of acetyl-CoA and the coenzyme A ester of a 12 carbon unsaturated (at carbon 3) fatty acid.

Enoyl-CoA isomerase isomerizes the CIS-3-enoyl-COA to the ____-___ 2- enoyl-CoA, which can be oxidized ____ more times to yield ____ additional molecules of acetyl-CoA
enoyl-COA isomerase
Enoyl-CoA isomerase is needed for the complete Beta-oxidation of

A- unsaturated fatty acids with cis double bonds
B- odd-numbered fatty acids
C- saturated fatty acids
D- unsaturated fatty acids with trans double bonds
Enoy-CoA isomerase changes the cis double bond to a trans double. the ______ ______ can only work on the trans configuration.
enoyl-CoA hydratase
The propionyl-CoA produced by beta-oxidation of long-chain ODD-numbered fatty acids enters the TCA as

A- succinyl-CoA
B- Malonyl-CoA
C- oxaloacetate
D- acetyl-CoA
After Triacylglycerols are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids and glycerol, how is glycerol used for energy?

A- it undergoes Beta-oxidation
B- It enters the glyoclysis pathway
C- It enters the TCA
D- it is converted to ketone bodies
Glycerol is converted to _________ ______, which is oxidized via glycolysis
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Ketone bodies are formed in

A- adipocytes
B- All cells
C- hepatocytes
D- myocytes
ketone bodies are formed in the liver because gluconeogenesis depletes ____ intermediates, thus diverting _____ away from oxidation and toward the production of ketone bodies
what happens to ketone bodies AFTER they are synthesized?

A- they are exported to tissues
B- They are oxidized in the mitochondria of the liver
C- They are converted to acetyl-CoA and exported to tissues
D- They are used in gluconeogenesis
after they are synthesized in the liver, ketone bodies are exported to tissues such as the ____ and ______, where they are converted to _____, which enters the ______ to be oxidized as fuel.
brain and liver
Both w-oxidation and beta-oxidation of fatty acids in animals

A- require water
B- take place in mitochondria
C- generate NADH
D- use fatty acyl-CoA esters as substrates
one cycle of w-oxidation generates ____ molecules of NADH, while one cycle of beta-oxidation generates _____ molecule each of NADH and FADH2
Which of the following is TRUE about ketone bodies?

A- they raise the pH of the blood
B- They are the brain's preferred energy source
C- They cannot be used as fuel
D- They are water-soluble
Ketone bodies are soluble in blood and urine, potentially causing the conditions ____ and ______
acidosis and ketosis.
what are the 3 ketone bodies?
what is alpha-oxidation?
it is an alternative path for oxidation in peroxisomes
what is a mixed function oxidase?
it is an enzyme that catalyzes, in which two reductants are oxidized: NADPH, and the substrate.

One oxygen atom is encorporated into the product, and the other is reduced to H2O
what is w-oxidation?
alternative form of oxidation in which the intial oxidation occurs at the methyl carbon (most distant carbon from carbonyl carbon)
what is a lipoprotein?
it is a lipid-protein aggregate that serves to carry water-insoluble lipids in the blood. The protein component alone is an apolipoprotein
what is acidosis ?
a metabolic conditoin in which the capactiy of the body to buffer H+ is diminished; usually accompanied by decreased blood pH
what is serum albumin?
a major protein of the blood plasma which carries fatty acids and contributes to the osmolarity of the plasma
what is the carnitine shuttle?
mechanism for moving fatty acids from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix as fatty esters of carnitine
what is beta oxidation?
oxidative degradation of fatty acids into acetyl-CoA by successive oxidations at the beta carbon?
what is alpha oxidation
an alternative path for the oxidation of beta-methyl fatty acids in peroxisomes