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18 Cards in this Set

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What do leukocytes contain which makes them different to erythrocytes?

They have a nucleus, DNA and organelles and are capable of reproducing.

What is an important feature about leukocytes that is important in the immune system?

That it can replicate. The clonal expansion of antigen specific lymphocytes is a central feature of the immune system.

Which cells are the mobile patrol in the immune system?


What is their role?

T,B lymphocytes and antibody molecules.




They move around the whole body for infections.

Which cells are the neighborhood watch in the immune system?


What is their role?

Macrophage cells and Mast cells.




They stay in one area of the body and keep watch for any infections. These send signals to other cells when there is trouble.

Which cells are part of the first response team in the immune system?


What is their role?

Neutrophils.




They come in and kill bacteria by engulfing them. Can't really recognize specific bacteria.

Which cells report back to the control centre in the immune system?


What is their role?

The Antigen Specific Cells (APC):


- Macrophages


- B lymphocytes




They take back information about the invaders back to the lymph nodes to produce certain antibodies to kill them.

Which cells are part of the clean up crew in the immune system?


What is their role?

The antibodies.




They kill specific bacteria.

Which cells are part of the control data base update?

B and T lymphocytes.

What is the immune system repertoire?

The 'database' where all shapes of antigen specific molecules are stored.

What do antibodies do?

They bind to certain pathogens, neutralizing them or labeling them for destruction.




They make the job easier for macrophages to digest the bacteria, or if binding to cells, cell lysis.

What do cytotoxic T cells do?

They are killer T cells, and kill infected cells.

What is a complement attack?

Bacteria marked with Ig is destroyed by plasma molecules, called the complement system.




inducing cell lysis

How can antibodies enhance phagocytosis?

1. blocks virus/bacteria binding sites, neutralizing them.


2. agglutinates them (groups bacteria together)


3. precipitates soluble antigens

What is the necessary cell required for the immune system to work?

Lymphocytes




Recall that experiment with the normal and irradiated mouse, only when the lymphocytes were injected into the irradiated mouse restored its immune system. No other cells worked.

What do neutrophils do?

They arrive at the site, kill bacteria and then dies.




It is a phagocyte.

What do monocytes do?

Enters the tissue and transforms to macrophages, which engulf and destroy bacteria, then reporting back to control center.

What are the two types of T cells and how do they work?

T helper cells - Help with the activation of B cells




T cytotoxic cells - Kill infected cells

How do macrophages transform to Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)?

They eat the bacteria, breaking it down and uses its proteins on the surface of macrophages and are called MHC II class molecules which can bind to T receptor cells in the lymph node.