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17 Cards in this Set

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Discribe the process of anaerobic respiration in animal .

- glycolysis, produced 2 pyruvate, 2CO2, 2ATP   
- entering fermentation and produce 2 lactic acid 
-free the NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue

- glycolysis, produced 2 pyruvate, 2CO2, 2ATP


- entering fermentation and produce 2 lactic acid


-free the NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue

Describe the process of anaerobic respiration in plants.

- glycolysis produced 2pyruvate, 2CO2, 2ATP
- entering fermentation and produce 2 ethanol 
- free NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue

- glycolysis produced 2pyruvate, 2CO2, 2ATP


- entering fermentation and produce 2 ethanol


- free NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue

what is the purple molecule and what does it produce ?

what is the purple molecule and what does it produce ?

- it is hexokinase


- it is an enzyme, that carries out phosphorylation of glucose (sugar)


- hexokinase - glucose-6-phosphate


- phosphorylation is part of glycolysis

identify the process and describe it.

identify the process and describe it.

- electron-transport chain


- the last step in aerobic respiration


- NADH is oxidised back to NAD+ at NADH dehydrogenase protein complex


- FADH2 is oxidised back to FAD at cytochrome electron carrier protein complex


- and electrons are released


- and passed down the transmembrane proteins as current


- electrons are then taken up by O2 and hydrogen ion as they form water


- also hydrogen ions are being pumped through protein channels from matrix into inter membrane space to create concentration gradient


- at ATP synthase, hydrogen ions goes form inter membrane space out to matrix


- as it happens ADP is converted into ATP


- ATP produced is then transported out of the mitochondria through protein channel.

why is the total energy (ATP) produce a range (36-38ATP) ?

- In eukaryotes, 2ATP is required to transport 2NADH across membrane into mitochondria

Which part of aerobic respiration produce the most ATP molecule per mole of glucose ?

- oxidation phosphorylation = ETC + Citric acid cycle

List the 3 types of transmembrane proteins in electron-transport chain.

- NADH dehydrogenation protein complex


- cytochrome electron carrier protein complex


- ATP synthase protein complex

How many ATP molecules and other products are produced at citric acid cycle?

- 1 ATP per pyruvate


- 2 CO2 per pyruvate


- intotal, 2 ATP and 4 CO2 are produced


- Also 6 NADH & 2 FADH2 produced

General equation of respiration ?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 36-38 ATP

Briefly describe the sequence of aerobic respiration.

Glycolysis -->pyruvate oxidation --> citric acid cycle --> electron transport chain

What is produced after pyruvate oxidation ?

- 2Acetyl coA and 2CO2 & 2NADH

What is the product straight after glycolysis ?

- 2ATP , 2NADH, 2 pyruvate

Why does a cell need energy ? list 4 cellular process.

- Active transport


- cell division


- protein synthesis


- photosynthesis







ATP is a carrier of energy. What type of molecule is ATP ? How is the energy held in the molecule ?

- ATP is a nucleotide (an adenosine + 3 phosphate group + sugar )


- energy is released by hydrolysis of the 3rd phosphate group and ADP is formed .(particularly in the P-O bonds between phosphate groups)


- This allow ADP molecule to absorb energy and regain the group.


- Hence, it allows ATP to store energy like a rechargeable battery



In eukaryotic cells, where is most of the ATP produced that is used in general cellular processes ?

- In mitochondria


- around 36-38 ATP

Glucose is a 6-carbon molecule. How many carbons are there in each molecules of pyruvate and the acetyl group of acetyl-coA? what happened to the lost carbons ?

- 3 carbons in each pyruvate


- 2 carbons are lost as 2 CO2


- for each acetyl-coA there are 2 carbons



Describe briefly the mechanism of citric acid cycle.

- Acetyl-coA (2 carbons atom)is too short to undergo further reaction.Thus, it combines with oxaloacetic acid (has 4 carbons atom) to form citric acid (6 carbon)




- The missing 2 carbon (lose 1 carbon per pyruvate) formed carbon dioxide giving up electrons to enable NAD+ +2electrons + H+ -->NADH