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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

cells carry genetic information in packages of DNA called....

chromosomes

most______ have only one strand of circular DNA

prokaryotes

in eukaryotic cells, the genetic structure consist of DNA and a tightly wound protein which together form a substance called...

chromatin

the beadlike structure formed by DNA wrapped around__________ molecules are called nucleosomes

8 histone protein

________make possible the precise separation of DNA during cell division

chromosomes

what is the name of the type of cell division in prokaryotic cell cycle

binary fission

what happens during interphase?

G1 G2 S phase

in eukaryotic cells what happens in the g1 phase?

cells grow and synthesize

what happens in G2 in eukaryotic cells?

cells prepare for division

in eukaryotic cells, what are the two main stages for cell divison?

interphase mitosis

during prophase, when the cell chromosomes become visible what are the duplicated strands of DNA called?

chromatid

where do the chromatids join together

centromeres

what structures are spindle fibers attached to that pull the paired chromosomes apart?

kinetochores

chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell

anaphase

chromosomes become visible, the centrioles take up positions on opposite sides of nucleus

prophase


nuclear envelope reforms around chromosome clusters, nucleolis becomes visible in daughter cell

telophase

chromosomes line up in the center of the cell

metaphase

in which phase do chromosomes become visible?

prophase

in which phase do the chromosomes move until they form 2 groups on opposite ends of spindles?

anaphase

what is cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm

cytokinesis in animals cells

cleavage furrow centrioles seen asters not seen

cytokinesis in plant cells

cell plate centrioles not seen asters seen

t/f


cells tend to continues dividing when they come into contact with other cells

false stop

t/f


cell division speeds up when the healing process nears completion

false slow down

t/f


proteins called growth factors regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

false cyclin

t/f


if chromosomes have not attached to the spindle fibers during metaphase, an internal regulatory protein will prevent the cell for entering anaphase

true

t/f


growth factors are external regulatory proteins that slow down the cell cycle

false speed up

t/f


once apoptosis is triggered, a cell proceeds to self-destruct

true

what is cancer?

when cells has uncontrolled growth

what is the cause of cancer?

defective check point gene

radiation and chemotherapy________

stop the cell cycle at a specific check point

cancer cells do not respond to signals that regulate cell _____

growth

cancer cells form a mass of cells called a

tumor

cancer cells may break loose and____throughout the body

spread

cancer cells for tumors in other tissues by____

metastasis

DD and dd are genotypes for tall and short, they are....

alleles of the same gene

what did mendel see when he cross fertilized P plants that had different alleles?

all F1 plants has the trait of one or the other plant

crossing red and white snapdragons yields seed that grow into pink snapdragons, what do these results support?

blending hypothesis of inheritance

crossing 2 pink snaps. yields red, white, and pink seeds, these results support....

unblended discrete units of inheritance hypothesis

what is the physical basis for the independent assortment observation that mendel made

homologous chromosomes are randomly separated during meiosis 1

the law of independent assortment states that in genetic formation, gene pairs are_________

transmitted independently to each other

when mendel crossed plants and followed 2 characters(dihybrid cross) he saw a 9:3:3:1 ratio of characters in the offspring, what did he conclude?

complete dominance

a picture of the set of chromosomes from a cell is___

karyotype

people with down syndrome have

a diploid set of chromosomes plus one extra #21