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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What does it mean to be true breeding?

organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves.

ex. pea plant self polinates


characteristics that determine main physical traits (ex. Skin tone)


the genetic constitution of an individual organism

What is Mendels law of dominance?

if a trait is dominant it has a greater chance of being passed on to the offspring

What is the difference between incomplete dominance and co-dominance?

incomplete dominance controls minor traits while co-dominance works in conjunction with other traits (ex. hair color).


contains 2 complete sets of chromosomes and two sets of genes


contain only one set of chromosomes and one set of genes

What is a tetrad?

structure that contains 4 chromatids formed in meiosis.

How does crossing over take place in a tetrad?

In meiosis 1 crossing over is the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes and produces a new combination of alleles.

What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?

Mitosis results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells. Meiosis produces 4 genetically different haploid cells.

Fredrick Grittith

conducted an experiment by injecting mice with bacteria to determine transformation.

Oswald Avery

discovered that nucleic acid DNA transmits and stores genetic information from one generation to the next.

Hershey and Chase

used radioactive markers to conclude that genetic material of bacteriophage was DNA

Erwin Chargaff

A = T

G = C

Rosalind Franklin

Studied DNA with x-ray defraction microscope and discovered that DNA is a Helix shape. X

Watson and Crick

Built the first DNA molecule model

What is transcription?

RNA polyermase binds to DNA and separates the strands then uses one of the strands to create a template.

Where does translation occur?

on the ribosome

What is a codon?

3 nucleotide sequence on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid

What is the anticodon?

3 unpaired bases on tRNA and are complementary to one mRNA codon

What is a gene mutation?

changes in genetic material

point mutation vs Frameshift mutation

point mutation is one nucleotide is missing on the DNA sequence and Frameshift is when a grouping of nucleotides have shifted which is much more damaging.

What are the different types of chromosomal mutations?





What is lac operon? How does it work in bacteria?

its a signal that is turned off by a repressor and turned on by the presence of lactose.

What is selective breeding?

is allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation.

What is hybridization?

crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms. ex Hybrid Daisies

What does inbreeding decrease the gene pool?

because you are limited to on breed and those elimination variation

What is recombinant DNA?

"synthetic" sequences can be joined to "natural" ones using enzymes that splice DNA together.

Describe how PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)


adds short splices of DNA to the beginning and end of the strand that they want to copy and allows the polymerase to start working to create multiple copies of the DNA sequence.