Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/298

Click to flip

298 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

functional unit of kidney

nephron

85 percent of the nephron, all components within cortex

cortical

15 percent of the nephron.



juxtamedullary

loop of henle extends into the

medulla

where does the loop of henle extend into the medulla?

juxtamedullary

how much of the nephrons must function to ensure survival of the kidney

one third

nephron is made up of the

glomerulus + tubular portion

fenestrated capillary bed, and the site of filtration

glomerulus

site of reabsorption and secretion

tubular portion

the renal corpuscle is made up of

fenestrated capillary bed + Bowman's capsule

visceral layer of this has specialized cells

bowman's capsule

bowman's capsule has specialized cells called

podocytes

gaps between podocytes processes surrounding the glomerulus

filtration slits

the filtration membrane is made up of?

capillary epithelium + basement membrane+ podocytes

the juxtaglomerular apparatus is made of up?

JG cells+ macula densa

modified smooth muscle cells of afferent arteriole

JG cells

with low blood pressure JG cells release

renin

when the JG cells release renin, it results in

the restoration of higher blood pressure

specialized DCT cells

macula densa

site of filtration

glomerulus

site at which reabsorbed materials reenter the bloodstream

peritubular capillaries

specialized parts of peritubular capillaries that wrap around the loop of henle

vasa recta

the three steps that urine filtration involves

filtration


reabsorption


secretion

movement of materials across filtration membrane due to pressure differences

filtration

movement of materials from filtrate back into the bloodstream

reabsorption

active transport of additional materials into nephron

secretion

high glomerular capillary pressure forces fluid out of capillary and into bowman's capsule creating the filtrate in?

glomerular filtration

in glomerular filtration where does the fluid coming out of the capillary go to?

bowman's capsule

the glomerular filtration rate or GFR is

125 ml/minute or equal to 180 L/per day

what percent of filtrate is reabsorbed?

99 percent

how many ml or L is excreted as urine?

1.25 Ml/min or 1.8 L/day

how does filtrate cross the capillary epithelial cells?

fenestrated

how does filtrate cross the visceral layer of bowman's capsule?

through podocytes with filtration slits

is filtration selective or nonselective?

nonselective

anything under 7 nm diameter or under 40,000 MW

passes through

albumins greater than or equal to 7 nm pass through filtrate in

small quantities

larger ____ _____ are retained during filtration

plasma proteins

GCP

glomerular capillary pressure

CP

capsule pressure

COP

colloidal osmotic pressure

in GFP how much is the GCP

60 mmHG

in GFP how much is the COP

32 mmhg

in GFP how much is the CP

18 mm hg

to find the GFP

GCP (60)-CP(18)-COP(32)= 10mmhg

hydrostatic pressure that forces fluid out of glomerulus

GCP or glomerular capillary pressure

caused by fluid already present in bowman's capsule

CP or capsule pressure

plasma proteins remaining within glomerulus draw fluid to them

COP or colloidal osmotic pressure

in tubular reabsorption filtrate leaves the renal tubules and reenters bloodstream via the

peritubular capillaries

tubular reabsorption occurs via

active and passive processes

proteins leave by endocytosis

PCT

active transport removes

glucose, aa, Na, Cl, K, MG, Ca, P


ascending limb

loop of henle

what elements do the loop of henle deal with via active (co-transport)

Na, Cl, K


sodium, chlorine, potassium

DCT deals with these elements via active (co-transport)

Na, Cl, Ca


sodium, chlorine, calcium

by the end of PCT the filtrate volume is reduced by

65 percent

the loop of henle DESCENDING limb is ______ permeable

H20


water

the descending limb of the loop of henle reduces the filtrate another

15 percent

in the DCT and CD, h20 permeability if affected by

ADH


anti-diuretic hormone

with the anti-diuretic hormone, ___ percent of the filtrate is reabsorbed

19 percent

urine volume is about __ percent of filtrate volume

one percent

tubular secretion can be ___ or _____

active or passive

movement of materials out of peritubular capillaries and into renal tubules

tubular secretion

in tubular secretion, the materials move out of peritubular capillaries and into the

renal tubules

active transport, H, NT, toxins, drugs, bile pigments all deal with

PCT

active elements in DCT

potassium K+

passive elements in DCT

hydrogen and potassium

humans produce concentrated urine due to ability to maintain high medullary concentration gradient

hyperosmotic urine

concentrates urine

countercurrent multiplier system

fluid flowing in parallel tubes but in OPPOSITE directions

countercurrent flow

in countercurrent flow, materials move from one tube segment to

the next tube segment

examples of countercurrent flow is the

loop of henle and the vasa recta

removes excess h20 and solutes from the interstitial fluid of the medulla without changing the high osm of fluid within the medulla of the kidney

vasa recta

in the loop of henle, the water moves out of the descending limb and into the

vasa recta


in the loop of henle ascending limb, NaCl moves into ______ ______ to maintain its high osm

interstitial fluid

H20 moves out of CD under the influence of

ADH

urea diffuses into the ____ from interstitial fluid

descending limb of loop of henle

____ and _____ are impermeable to urea

ascending limb and DCT

__ is permeable to urea

CD

urea moves out of CD and into

interstitial fluid

in hormone control a total of __ hormones are involved

4

what hormones are involved in the regulation of urine production?

aldosterone


renin-angiotensin


ADH


ANF

what is aldosterone stimulated by

high potassium levels and angiotensin II

aldosterone results in

low urine volume

what is renin-angiotensin stimulated by?

low blood pressure

stimulates the thirst center in the brain

angiotensin II

what is ADH produced with

high osmotic pressure and low blood volume

without ADH you would excrete large amounts of

dilute urine

produced by right atrium with high blood pressure

ANF

maintenance of stable glomerular filtration rate

autoregulation

with high blood pressure, afferent arteriole

constricts

with low blood pressure, afferent arteriole

dialates

when the afferent arteriole constricts this results in

decreased blood flow to glomerulus

when afferent arteriole dialates, this results in

increased blood flow through glomerulus

in sympathetic innervation, SNS stimulation constricts the

afferent arteriole

when the sns stimulation constricts the afferent arteriole this results in

low blood flow and low filtration formation

diuretics has a high urine volume resulting in

low blood volume and low blood pressure

diuretics prevent

Na reabsorption

preventing Na reabsorption results in

Na/H20 being lost to urine

K sparing diuretics prevent

excessive K loss

EtOH has low

ADH levels

caffeine has low ____ and high ___

Na/Cl reabsorption


Glomerular filtration rate GFR

dialysis doesn't

occur naturally

this replaces the function of a nephron

dialysis

another name for kidney stones in

renal calculi

where do renal calculi deposit?

within renal pelvis

kidney stones contain

Ca2+ salts

stones shattered and passes/aspirated

lipotripsy

elimination of fluid from the bladder

micturition reflex

micturition reflex is stimulated by volumes of

300 mL

the maintenance of water, electrolyte and acid base balance involves the

kidneys, lungs, GI tract, and skin

2 major fluid compartments

intracellular fluid (ICF)


extracellular fluid (ECF)

the intracellular fluid accounts of ___ percent of total body weight

40 percent

the extracellular fluid accounts for ___ percent of total body weight

20 percent

examples of extracellular fluid

plasma, interstitial fluid

for homeostasis to occur,

intake=elimination

primary extracellular cation that is responsible for 90 percent of osmotic pressure within extracellular fluid

sodium Na

primary organ controlling Na within ECF

kidney

increased blood sodium

hypernatremia

is seen with hypersecretion of aldosterone

hypernatremia


hypokalemia

low blood sodium levels results in

hyponatremia

seen with hyposecretion of aldosterone

hyponatremia


hyperkalemia

high blood pottasium levels

hyperkalemia

primary extracellular anion

Cl-


chlorine

Cl- is attracted to __ in ECF

sodium Na

passively follows Na movement

Cl-

primary intracellular cation

K


potassium

within ECF, kept low and maintained with very narrow range



K


potassium

K has major influence on

RMP

with high potassium extracellular fluid this occurs

depolarization

with low potassium extracellular fluid this occurs

hyperpolarization

these two concentrations are controlled by the kidney

Ca/P


calcium and phosphorus

if you have low levels of calcium, your kidneys release __ and it raises the calcium levels

PTH

if you have high calcium levels, your kidneys release ___ to bring the levels back down

calcitonin

adult females are made of ___ percent water

50 percent

adult males are made of __ percent water

60 percent

females have 50 percent water weight due to high

fat

males have 60 percent water weight due to high

protein

water volume affects

osm and bp

high amounts of h20 cause

increased BP and decreased OSM

low amounts of h20 cause

low BP and high OSM

h20 intake=h20 loss to

maintain homeostasis

what ways can you lose water

urine, feces, evaporation

two ways h20 evaporates

lungs


skin

ways h20 evaporates through the skin

insensible perspiration


sensible perspiration

insensible perspiration is

continual

sensible perspiration is

water and ion loss

ways to intake water

food and metabolic water

how is metabolic water made by the body

as a result of chemical rxns

kidneys are the primary organs that regulate

water volume

this is the primary hormone regulating water balance

ADH

the pH of arterial blood is

7.4

pH of venous blood is

7.35

the venous blood has a lower pH due to

high CO2 and thats why high H is found there

Hydrogen donors

acids

Hydrogen acceptors

bases

conjugate acid/base pairs that resist and minimize pH

buffers

important plasma buffer

H2CO3/HCO3

acts as an acid to neutralize excess base

H2CO3

acts as a base to neutralize excess acids

HCO3

accounts for 75 percent of buffering capacity

protein buffer system

important intracellular buffer, primarily used by the kidney

H2PO4/HPO4^2

the two mechanisms that acid-base regulation involves

respiratory mechanism


urinary mechanism

the respiratory mechanism provides

rapid respone

the urinary mechanism is

slower acting but greater capacity to regulate pH

due to low CO2 elimination (Hypoventilation)

respiratory acidosis

if pH is below 7.35 it is

acidosis

if pH is above 7.45 it is

alkalosis

due to high HCO3 loss or inadequate oxygen supply.


(vommiting lower GI, diarrhea)


(high lactic acid)

metabolic acidosis

due to hyperventilation, high CO2 elimination

respiratory alkalosis

due to excess hydrogen loss/reabsorbing HCO3


(vommiting stomach contents, low urine pH)

metabolic alkalosis

male reproduction produces

sperm and testosterone

spermatozoa is ___ sensitive

temperature

where is spermatozoa developed

outside body within scrotum

the failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum

cryptorchidism

male gonads

testes

the testes contain

seminiferous tubules


interstitial cells of leydig

site of sperm production

seminiferous tubules

produce testosterone

interstitial cells of leydig

testes develop within

abdominal cavity

testes move from abdominal cavity and into the ______ during 7-8 months of fetal development

inguinal canal

spermatozoa production within seminiferous tubules (ST)

spermatogenesis

spermatogenesis begins at

puberty

there are ____ spermatozoa produced per day

several hundred million

ST contain these two types of cells

sertoli cells


germ cells



what cells are called the nurse cells

sertoli cells

why are they called nurse cells?

bc they nourish germ cells and produce some hormones

what forms the blood testes barrier

sertoli or nurse cells

protects sperm against immune system attack

blood-testes barrier

sperm are 1N __ chromosomes

23

drainage sequence for produced sperm

seminiferous tubules-> rete testis-> vas efferentia -> epididymus

site of maturation and sperm storage before ejaculation

epididymus

conveyed with spermatic chord throughout inguinal canal into pelvic cavity

vas deferns

the vas deferens transports sperm from the epididymus to the

urethra

helps move sperm through the duct

peristalsis

this is severed in a vasectomy

vas deferens

formed from the vas deferns+duct draining seminal vesicles

ejaculatory duct

passageway for urine and semen

urethra-prostatic-> membranous-> spongy sections

sperm+reproductive gland secretions

semen

contribute spermatozoa ro semen

testes

testes represent ___ of total semen volume

5 percent

the 3 parts of the seminal glands

seminal vesicles


prostate gland


bulbourathral (cowpers) gland

60 percent of semen volume is in

seminal vesicles

seminal vesicles contain ____ to nourish sperm, PG, and fibrinogens

fructose

30 percent of semen volume

prostate gland

this neutralizes acidic vagina, and includes clotting factors

alkaline fluids

5 percent of semen volume

bulbourethral (cowpers) gland

alkaline pre-ejaculate

cowpers gland

what is the coagulation function of semen

it coagulates with the vagina after ejaculation, later sperm become mobile again and swim onward

requires parasympathetic division ANS

arousal

discharge of semen from seminal glands, requires sympathetic division ANS

emission

expulsion of semen from urethra

ejaculation

after ejaculation, penis flaccid

resolution

what is the normal sperm count in semen

75-400 million/ml semen

usually __ __ ml of semen ejaculate

2-5

inability to achieve/maintain erection


(physical vs. psychological issues)

impotence

arteries within erectil tissues dilate and results in engorgement of blood during

erection

during erection, veins are

compressed

when veins in penis are compressed

blood can not drain

when blood can not drain due to erection, this results in

vasocongestion

FSH, LH and testosterone are all

male hormones

binds to sertoli or nurse cells in seminiferous tubules to promote spermatogenesis

FSH

binds to leydig cells and increases testosterone synthesis

LH

primary male sex hormone

testosterone

necessary for spermatogenesis and maintenance of secondary sexual traits

testosterone

testosterone increases

protein synthesis, generally raising metabolic rate

stimulates hair growth

testosterone

inhibits FSH secretion


negative feedback

inhibin

where is inhibin from?

testes

female reproduction produces

ovum


female sex hormones

female gamete

ovum

begins meiosis I

oogonium

primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells

primary follicle

during ovulation, the secondary oocyte is released from

Graafian follicle

follicle development into a secretory unit after ovulation

corpus luteum

the corpus luteum produces

estrogen and progesterone

the ____ degenerates within 10-12 days without pregnancy

corpus luteum

without pregnancy, the corpus luteum becomes the

corpus albicans

sloughing/expulsion of endometrium

mensus

days 1-5 of female reproduction

mensus

day 6-14 of female reproduction

follicular/proliferative phase


(ovarian cycle)

day 14 of female reproduction is

ovulation

day 15-28 of female reproduction

luteal/secretory phase


(uterine cycle)

during follicle development, GnRH breaks down into

Lh and FSH

LH and FSH affect

development of follicle within ovary

both hormones peak in their concentration with __ in production

surge

at about day __ there is an ovulation signal

14

during the surge, __ is greater than ___

LH > FSH

primary affect on granulosa cells

FSH

initial effect on theca cells, later effects granulosa cells

LH

you also see a rise in ____ with a peak prior to ovulation

estrogen

estrogen is produced by

theca cells of follicle

with increased estrogen, _____ begins to proliferate

uterine mucosa

LH surge initiates

ovulation

after ovulation, __ causes follicle to become corpus luteum after ovulation

LH

causes primary oocyte to complete Meiosis I

LH

causes inflammatory response within follicle that leads to ovulation

LH

with fertilization, HCG is produced by the

embryo

HCG maintains the ___ until placenta is functional

corpus luteum

HCG is not produced without

fertilization

the CL degrades after day

25-26

with low progesterone and estrogen, uterine lining

degrades

uterine cycle changes in uterine lining during what two phases

follicular and luteal phases

by day 21, the lining is ready for

embryo implantation

from corpus luteum, causes endometrial cells to proliferate

estrogen

what stimulates production of progesterone receptors within uterine walls?

estrogen

from CL, causes hypertrophy of endometrium

progesterone

PMS is around days

25-28

associated with rapid decline of female steroid hormones

Premenstrual syndrome

where does fertilization occur?

upper 1/3 or the ampulla of the fallopian tube

the oocyte is viable for

24 hours after ovulation

sperm is viable for

48-72 hours after ovulation within female reproductive tract

fertilization window is days

11-15

milk production by mammary glands

lactation

lactation requires what 3 hormones

estrogen


prolactin


oxytocin

primary responsibility of breast development during pregnancy

estrogen

responsible for milk production

prolactin

responsible for milk letdown

oxytocin

natural birth control is

lower GnRH release by the hypothalamus

fertilized ovum

zygote

stage that implants within uterine lining

blastocyst

within 3-4 days after fertilization, zygote becomes

fluid filled cell mass

fluid filled cavity

blastocoel

tissue from which embryo will develop

inner cell mass

surrounds blastocoel

trophoblast

secretes enzymes that digest endometrial cells of uterus and allows blastocyte to implant

trophoblast

trophoblast secretes

HCG

what forms the trophoblast?

the placenta

the period from conception to birth

prenatal period

first 2 weeks after conception

germinal period.

when do germ layers form

first 2 weeks

most organs develope in the embryonic period which is the

2nd to 8th week

last 7 months

fetal period

the period known as the growing phase

fetal period

forms of sterilization

vasectomy and tubal ligation

behavioral ways to control pregnancy

abstinence, coitus interuptus, rhythm method

barrier methods to control pregnancy

mechanical-condom, diaphragm


chemical- spermicidal agents

chemical methods to control pregnancy

oral contraceptives


decreasing LH/FSH therefor no ovulation


increasing estrogen/progesterone-uterine development

IUD prevents

implantation