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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
form of cell dicision that halves the number of chromosomes when forming specialized reproductive cells such as gametes or spores
crossing over
the exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologous chromosomes of the beginning of meiosis; source of genetic recombination
independent assortment
random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
process by which gametes are produced in male animals
male gamete
process by which gametes are produced in female animals
mature egg cell
Prophase One
chromosomes condense; nuclear envelope breaks down; homologous chromosomes pair all along their length and then cross over
Metaphase One
Pairs of homologous chromosomes are moved by the spindle to the equator of the cell; homologous chromosomes, each made up of two chromatids remain together
Anaphase One
Homologous chromosomes seperate; as in mitosis the chromosomes of each pair are pulled to opposite poles of the cell by spindle fibers THE CHROMATIDS DO NOT SEPERATE OF THEIR CENTROMERES- EACH CHROMOSOME IS STILL COMPOSED OF TWO CHROMATIDS. THE GENETIC MATERIAL HAS RECOMBINED.
Telephase One
Individual chromosomes gather at each of the poles. In most organisms, the cytoplasm divides (cytokenesis) forming two new cells. Both cells or pores contain one chromosome from each pair of homologous chromosomes. The chromosomes do not replicate between miosis one and meiosis two
Prophase Two
A New Spindle forms around the chromosomes
Metaphase Two
Chromosomes line up along the equator and are attached at their centromeres to spinde fibers
Anaphase Two
Centromere divides and the chromatids (chromosomes) move to opposite poles of the cell
Telophase Two
Nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes. The spindle breaks down, and the cell undergoes cytokenesis; the result of meiosis is four haploid cells
Spermatogenesis LONG ONE
Meiosis in males; occurs in testes; diploid cell first increases in size and becomes a large immature cell (germ cell); undergoes meiosis one and two
Oogenesis LONG ONE
Occurs in ovaries; one of the resulting cells after cytokenesis gives rise to an egg cell and the other becomes a polar body