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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 processes of respiration
Breathing/Ventilation: movement of air into and out of the lungs; External respiration: exchange of gases that occurs in the lungs between air and blood; Internal respiration: exchange of gases between blood and tissues; Cellular respiration: the process in which cells use oxygen to produce ATP, and generate carbon dioxide as a waste product
the components of the upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract
upper: nose, pharynx; lower: larynx, trachea, 2 bronchi, lungs
5 functions of the nose
1. passageway for respiration 2. receptors for smell 3. filters inhaled air and screens out foreign particles 4. moistens, humidifies, and warms incoming air 5. resonating chambers for voice tone
the nasal cavity is lined with ____ tissue
function of mucus in nasal cavity
humidifies air and traps dust and pathogens
function of cilia in the nasal cavity
moves mucus and particles to back of nasal cavity and pharynx where coughed up or swallowed
function of blood vessels in nasal cavity
warm incoming air
functions of the larynx
maintains an open airway, routes food and air to appropriate channels, and assists in production of sound
flexible flap of cartilage in the larynx
open when _____ and closed when ____
air is flowing in (breathing) and closed when you swallow
two folds of connective tissue that extend across the airway in the larynx
vocal cords
airway opening
transports air to and from the lungs; "windpipe"
trachea is composed of C-shaped rings of _____, held together by ___ tissue and _____ muscle; lined with _____ tissue that secretes _____ to trap foreign particles
trachea, cartilage, connective, smooth, epithelial, mucus
trachea branches into two main airways called ___; right one goes to right lung and left one goes to left lung; these two airways branch into smaller and smaller branches like a tree until until form the smallest airways called ____
bronchi; bronchioles
four functions of bronchi and bronchioles
transport air, clean the air, warm air to body temp, saturate air with water vapor (humidify)
humans have __ lungs made of ___ lobes; right lung is composed of ___ lobes and left lung is composed of ___ lobes
2, 5, 3, 2
two thin epithelial membranes surrounding the lungs
pleural membranes
inflammation of the pleural membranes; there is less fluid in the pleural cavity, resulting in more friction during breathing and pain when breathing
all of the branching airways of the lungs end in 300 million tiny air-filled sacs called
all of the alveoli have a combined surface area of ___, which, along with the thinness of the epithelium, facilitates gas exchange with capillaries in the lungs
800 sq ft
the alveoli do not collapse because their epithelial cells secrete a lipoprotein called
gas exchange occurs between the epithelial cells of the ____ in the lungs and the epithelial cells of the pulmonary _____
alveoli; capillaries
CO2 diffuses out of __ and into __; O2 diffuses out of __ and into __
pulmonary capillaries, alveoli; alveoli, pulmonary capillaries
structures that assist in the expansion or contraction of the lungs
lungs, ribs, diaphragm
dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
breathing - relaxed state, followed by ___ - air moves into the lungs, ___ - air flows out of the lungs
inspiration, expiration
in the relaxed state of the breathing process, ___ and ____ muscles are relaxed
diaphragm, intercostals
Describe inspiration.
Diaphragm contracts, flattens, and moves downward. Intercostal muscles contract, pulling ribs upward and outward.
Describe expiration
diaphragm relaxes and resumes dome shape, intercostal muscles relax, ribs return to normal shape
external respiration
the exchange of gases btwn air and blood in the lungs; occurs by diffusion
internal respiration
the exchange of gases btwn blood and tissues; occurs by diffusion
in the medulla oblongata,
special cells detect increased hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide levels in cerebrospinal fluid and send signals to the respiratory center to increase the rate of breathing
structures that detect decreased oxygen levels
carotid bodies and aortic bodies
a disease that damages nerves to skeletal muscles, leading to respiratory failure because the diaphragm and intercostals muscles weaken and waste away
inflammation of bronchi, causing a persistent cough with large quantities of phlegm
uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs, often associated with smoking
lung cancer
a chronic condition caused by destruction of connective tissue, leading to collapse of airways and permanent damage to alveoli
lung infection and scarring caused by the bacterium Myocobacterium...
paralysis of respiratory muscles by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium....
fluid buildup in lungs caused by weakening of the left side of the heart
congestive heart failure
lung infection caused by viruses or bacteria