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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


transmit action potentials (electrical potentials streaming in nerves)

rapid on off

specific targets remove stimulus, remove action


messengers (Hormone=chemicals released into blood traveling through blood)

slow long duration

body wide effect because they travel in bloodfear hormone

epinephrine and adrenaline


what an organism does


detectable change in the environment

stimulus can be (1)

stimulus is (2)

the output of stimulus is (1)

-internal or external

-detected by senses

-info evaluated by nervous system and endocrine

-output= behavior

what are the two approaches to behavior?

mechanistic & evolutionary

mechanistic approach to behavior

proximate causes (nearest)

-external stimuli

- internal stimuli

- action of senses and integrators

evolutionary approach to behavior

ultimate causes

-is it adaptive

-how does it contribute to fitness

gray whales- E pacific are migratory feed and grow- Alaska

winter migration- breed and bear young in Mexico Dec-Feb

Back to Alaska- lots of foodH2O warmer than in winter

Which are proximate and which are ultimate?

Proximate-day length & H2O temp (hormone changes)

ultimate-feed yourself and your kids where food is most readily available, reproduction (food=survival and warmth=survival)

Behavior is a product of _________?

genes & environment

define ecology

study of inter-relationships between organisms and the environment

how an organism affects other organisms and it's surroundings and how those surroundings and organisms affect the organism

Biotic Factors

Alive: food, shelter, competition, predation, disease (parasitism)

abiotic factors

non living: Temperature, Light, Oxygen, Carbon, Topography

What are the interweaving disciplines applied for solving environmental problems?

Evolution, Genes, Systematics, Morphology, Physiology, Ethology

timeline of the history of ecology

theophrastes (200 BC) --> haeckel (1866) --> ecological society of america (1915) --> journal Ecology (1920)--> 1960 Silent Spring rachel carson

4 levels of ecology organization from the most inclusive to the least inclusive:

biosphere, ecosystem, community, population

Describe a J shaped curve

no limiting factors, exponential, biotic potential

r= (birth-death)/N

what is an overshoot undershoot curve

Displays how resources and consumers oscillate


between species


within species

5 effects of predation

Moves energy through a community

Drives adaption of prey and predation

Maintains prey populations at lower levels

Affects competition between prey items

Alters structure of prey population

Batesian Mimicry

looks like andistasteful form


all unpalatable forms look alike


nests look similar, parasites kill offspring

warning coloration

poisonous snakes

N2 cycle

N2 fixed by bacteria, humans, or lightening into NH3, NH4+, or NO3- to be absorbed by roots in the soil—> when organisms die the decomposers (bacteria) denitrify and return N2 back to the atmosphere. Molecules of the fixed nitrogen can leech (run) into water

CO2 cycle

Carbon fixation via photosynthesis—>autotrophs—> primary consumers via herbivory—> death of organisms and fecal matter lead to decomposers—> fossil fuels and burning of those fuels. All organisms respire which releases CO2 into the atmosphere.

Photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2

hydrologic cycle

84% of water evaporates into the sky, while 77% of water vapor falls from the clouds to the oceanThe clouds travel above the mountains where the air is cooler so water is held more tightly--> 16% of water evaporates into the sky from plants via transpiration, while 23% of water vapor falls from the clouds onto the land--> water that ends up on the land runs off into the ocean