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44 Cards in this Set

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awareness training

a component of the habit reversal procedure in which the person is taught to identify each instance of a particular habit behavior as it occurs

competing response

an alternative behavior that occurs in place of another target behavior; typically it is physically incompatible with the target behavior

competing response training

a component of the habit reversal procedure in which the client is taught to engage in a competing response contingent on the occurrence of the habit behavior or the urge to engage in the habit behavior

diaphragmatic breathing

a type of relaxation training exercise in which one engages in slow, rhythmic breathing, using the diaphragm muscle to pull air deep into the lungs

habit behavior

a repetitive behavior in one of three categories: nervous habits, tics, and stuttering

habit disorder

a repetitive behavior that is distressing to the person

habit reversal

a procedure for treating habit disorders; it component procedures include awareness training, competing response training, social support, generalization training, and motivational strategies

motivation strategy

part of the habit reversal procedure used to increase the likelihood that the client will use the competing response outside the treatment sessions to control the habit

motor tics

repetitive, jerking movements of a particular muscle group in the body

nervous habit

repetitive, manipulative behaviors that are most likely to occur when a person experiences heightened tension; do not typically serve any social function for the individual

regulated breathing

the competing response that is used in the habit reversal treatment for stuttering

social support

a component of the habit reversal procedure in which a significant other praises the correct use of the competing response and prompts the client to use the competing response when the habit behavior occurs

stuttering

a speech disfluency in which the individual repeats words or syllables, prolongs a word sound, and/or blocks on a work (makes no sound for a period of time when truing to say a word)

Tourette's disorder

a tic disorder involving multiple motor and vocal tics that have occurred for at least 1 year

vocal tic

a repetitive vocal sound or word uttered by an individual that doesn't serve any communicative function

backup reinforcer

reinforcers used in a token economy; a client receives tokens for desirable behaviors and exchanges a specified number of tokens for any of a variety of these

token

a conditioned reinforcer used in a token economy; something that can be given to another person and accumulated by that person

token economy

a reinforcement system in which conditioned reinforcers called tokens are delivered to people for desirable behaviors; the tokens are later exchanged for backup reinforcers

behavioral contract

a written document that specifies a particular target behavior for a client and the consequences that will be contingent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in a stated period of time

one-party contract

a behavioral contract in which one person seeks to change a target behavior; the person arranges the contract with a contract manager who implements the contingency

parallel contract

a two-part contract in which two people each seek behavior change; both people specify their behavior to be changed and the consequence for their behavior, however the contract behaviors and consequences for each party are independent of each other

quid pro quo contract

a two-party contract in which two people each specify a behavior that they will change in return for the behavior change of the other person

rule-governed behavior

behavior that is controlled by a verbal statement about a contingency between the behavior and a consequence

two-party contract

a type of behavioral contract in which two people both identify behaviors to change and the consequence for the behavior change

anxiety

a term used to describe respondent behavior involving the activation of the autonomic nervous system


attention-focusing exercises

a type of anxiety-reduction strategy in which one focuses attention on a pleasant or neutral stimulus to remove attention from the anxiety-producing stimulus

behavioral relaxation training

a type of relaxation training in which one assumes a relaxed posture in all of the major muscle groups of the body to achieve relaxation

contact desensitization

a form of in vivo desensitization in which the therapist provides reassuring physical contact as the client progresses through the hierarchy

fear

occurs when a stimulus situation elicits autonomic nervous system arousal and the individual engages in behavior to avoid or escape from the stimulus situation

flooding

a procedure in which the person is exposed to the feared stimulus at full intensity for a prolonged period until his/her anxiety subsides in the presence of the feared stimulus

hierarchy

used in systematic desensitization or in vivo desensitization procedures; various fearful situations are listed in order from least to most fear-provoking

in vivo desensitization

a procedure for treating a fear or phobia; 1. learning relaxation, 2. developing a fear hierarchy, 3. client makes actual contact with the fear-producing situation at each step in the hierarchy

phobia

a fear in which the level anxiety or escape and avoidance behavior is severe enough to disrupt the person's life

progressive muscle relaxation

a relaxation procedure in which the client learns to tense and relax each of the major muscle groups of the body

relaxation training

a procedure for teaching a person the skills needed to decrease autonomic arousal (anxiety) by producing an incompatible state of relaxation

systematic desensitization

a procedure used to treat a fear or phobia; 1. learns relaxation, 2. develops a hierarchy of fear-producing situations, 3. the person uses the relaxation procedure as he/she imagines each situation in the hierarchy

behavioral activation

a treatment for depression focusing on getting the client to engage in a larger number and gaiety of reinforcing activities

cognitive behavior

covert verbal or imaginal behavior; thinking, talking to yourself, imagining, etc

cognitive behavior modification

procedures used to help people change some aspect of their cognitive behavior

cognitive coping skills training

a cognitive behavior modification procedure in which the person learns specific self-statements for use in a problem situation to improve his/her performance or influence his/her behavior

cognitive distortions

a type of thinking in which individuals negatively evaluate or interpret events in their life or make logical errors in their thinking that lead to negative mood or depressed behavior

cognitive restructuring

a CBM procedure in which the client learns to identify thought that are distressing and then learns to eliminate those thoughts or to replace them with more desirable thoughts

cognitive therapy

a type of cognitive restructuring, developed by Beck, in which the therapist teaches the client to identify and change his or her distorted thoughts or to replace them with more desirable thoughts

self-instructional training

a type of CBM procedure in which the client learns to make specific self-statements that increase the likelihood that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation