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### 34 Cards in this Set

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 Population a group of individuals, all of the same species, that live in the same place and have the potential to reproduce with one another Paradigm a view of nature that implicitly defines legitimate problems, methods Tragedy of the Commons the problem of short term versus long-term profits in the exploitation of natural resources. Iteroparous organisms that reproduce at more than one age in their life history. The fecundity schedule for an iteroparous organism would contain two or more non-zero entries for the reproductive ages. environmental stochasticity Uncertainty due to variation in environmental conditions. In an exponential growth model, represented by r, the instantaneous rate of increase. With environmental schochasticity, a pop. is at risk of extinction if variation in r is too large compared to the mean of r. A pop. is never at risk of extinction in the deterministic model of exp. growth as long as r > zero. net reproductive rate (R0) mean # of female offspring produced by a female over her lifetime finite rate of increase (λ) A ratio measuring the proportional change in population size from one time step to the next in a discrete model of exponential population growth. In a population that is increasing exponentially, λ = Nt+1/Nt semelparous a.k.a “big bang” reproduction is a life history strategy which all reproduction is concentrated in a single age. The fecundity schedule for a semelparous organism would have zeroes for all ages except the single reproductive age. demographic stochasticity Uncertainty due to variation in the sequence of births and deaths in a population b/c allele frequencies in a population vary by chance. In small populations, there is a high risk of extinction density dependence A model where b and d are influenced by the size of the population, and overpopulation leads to reduction in births and an increase in deaths Senescence the accumulation of deleterious effects in old individuals. Selection pressure is weaker on older individuals in part because of their lower reproductive value. phenotypic plasticity environmental effects on phenotype periodical cicada insect that waits 13 or 17 yrs to emerge from underground in extremely large quantities, to reproduce, using the escape in numbers method keystone predator it specializes on a competitively dominant prey species, thereby increasing prey species richness sink population populations for which the local birth rate < the local death rate and the immigration rate > 0 keystone species a species whose presence has a major effect on community structure facilitation model model of succession in which each group of species that enters a patch alters the environment in a way that facilitates the entry of successive sets of species pleiotropy single gene affects more than one trait (problem with Mendelian Genetics) Type I Surivorship Curve survivorship high for young individuals and relatively low for old individuals Darlington’s Rule every 10fold increase in island size = doubling of species Modern Synthesis 1. Evolutionary phenomena (allelic change, adaptation, speciation) can be explained by mechanisms that are consistent with genetics 2. Evolution is gradual – small genetic changes accumulate, species diverge 3. selection is strongest evolutionary mechanism (+ with drift) 4. allelic frequencies reflect past and current selection 5. micro-evolutionary processes => macro-evolutionary change pre-zygotic isolation mechanisms seasonal, habitat isolation, behavioral, mechanical Sister species 2 species sharing a most recent common ancestor Bateman’s principle sexual selection should be strongest on males who are competing for females. Offspring production should be more closely related to # of matings in males than females Sexual selection selection for traits that maximize reproductive success Sex recombination of alleles with those of another individual via meiosis and fertilization Muller’s ratchet accumulation of deleterious alleles fully expressed in an asexual lineage Kin selection selection favors the spread of allele copies in related individuals Runaway sexual selection female choice leads to extreme traits in males that may not have fitness benefits Altruism behavior that increases fitness of another individual but reduces your own Eusociality (ex. Termites, some hymenoptera, naked mole rat) 1. Cooperative Care of young 2. Overlap of at least 2 generations 3. reproductive division of labor (castes) haplodiploidy Since females share more alleles with sisters, only one queen gives birth subterranean nesting, cooperation more energy efficient sister-sister r = ¾ mother daughter r = ½ Female / Male differences the fundamental difference is that disruptive selection on gamete size lead to a state where the female gamete is much larger than the male gamete. This leads to differences in reproductive strategy. Males maximize the number of matings (quantity) and females maximize quantity of mates (high cost for “mistake”) Males have tended to developed different traits: 1. large body size 2. morphological structures for fighting 3. structures for sperm competition 4. copulatory plug 5. alternative mating strategies Peripheral Isolator speciation widespread taxon + pre-existing barrier, occasional dispersal over barrier, differentiation and speciation before additional dispersal. Founder effect (= drift) Disruptive selection selection where trait values farthest from the mean have the highest fitness, mean remains the same while variance increases