Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is a logical fiction?

A concept in our mind with no exact counterpart in reality

Of the three examples given which of the three are logical fictions? (Basic Principal #2)

One to none (santa), One to one (humans), one to many (class groups) Examples 1 & 3

What do Aristotle and thomas Aquinas believe we are?

Both form and Matter

Potency and act

What is the problem with "what does the thinking"?

it is the combination of matter and form

For Thomas Aquinas its also possible for the soul to exist without the body : Its only the intellect that does the thinking

Why does Aquinas give two different answers

Because for him the soul is immortality

What is Berkley's answer to "What are you now"?

An immaterial conscious being. NO body or matter at all

Do you have a body?

No. All we ever experience is sense-datum that is produced by things outside of us

Can we observe how other behave?

No never

Berkeley's answer to Descartes calling color, sound, ideas, etc?

An idea is not the same thing as a pain

AN idea of a headache is not the same pain as an actua lheadache

How can we have an idea of a brain?

William James and Descartes :

The brain is simply a construct,a logical fiction, to describe the brain. If there is a physical world at all no one has ever experienced it

What did W. James suffer from?


Why did William James suffer from depression?

his belief in determinism

JAmes was freed from his depression by wht?

James decided that we have free will

What is determinism?

No leeway/ no chance in the universe. Every molecule has a set course that cannot change.

According to representationalism what are the things in our mind that make up our stream of consciousness?

Sense- datum, images and memory

What is the big question about where our thoughts come from?


What are the three answers from where they come from?

God ( Berkeley's answer)

They just happen (Common sense)

Its your brain (Plato)

Why should the existence of the soul be a big question for you?

Because Descartes changed the question to "How do you know that you have a body?"

Is there such a thing as death

Not if we are immortal souls

What is death?

the end of the body

Why if we have never experienced a brain, do we think one exist?

Matter and Form are principles and cannot exist on their own

Unity of consciousnesses is what holds us together.

Heaven for Catholics consist of the Beatific Vision


A concept for which ther is no corresponding reality

Persons can exist because they can experience sense data ( color, sound,etc)

We make the mistake of thinking these things as part of the physical world

Logical Fiction

All we experience is directly in our mind

The brain is not an actual thing. Its a fiction of popular speech. If there is a physical world all the only things that exist are minds and their stream of consciousness. What you have at most is indicidual neurons that are not competetly connected to each other. There are synapses/ gaps between them .

William James: phenominalist

Why is it hard for Bauer to convert faculty on basic principles?

Because of the law of habit

Emotions depend heavily on how we thing

those we can directly sense ( i.e. we can see, feel, hear, etc.)


those we cant directly see (i.e. anything in general, a soul)

Non- physical

Should we stop believing in a material world?

No. the principle of causality; every effect has a separate and adequate cause

How do physicist today, explain Dark Energy?

They noticed that matter has continued to expand across the universe even after the effects of the Big Bang should have slowed down. The universe is expanding faster and faster. Dark energy makes this expansion go faster and faster.

Has anyone every seen a star?


You'll never experience your brain. What is the evidence for/ against a brain?

James: if there is a physical world the brain is just millions of atoms and neurons firing

Why believe modern physics?

Because the progress (assumptions) of modern science gives us stuff and tells us how the laws of nature work.

All science and philsophy takes its start in common sense view.

1. All humans speculation originates in a mind that at some stage took CS for granted

Common sense principal

What was Helen kellers form of inner speech?

tactile images and sensations

Two other components of language?

Physical realities and images

What is an image ?

Reproduction of sensation

What was Descartes example that we can only imagine images to a certain difficulty?

We can picture a triangle but not a 999 sided shape

What are some examples of things we have never sensed?

Moral goodness, justice , human rights,laws

What was the year psychology and philosophy sperated?


Can there be imageless thoughts?

Germans say yes, Americans say no

How can we study what goes on in owr minds?


What does inner speech consist of ?

Memory images and sense data

What is the traditional name fir connections of thoughts and languages?


What is a BLIT?

short for Bilitri. 2 men and 2 women. Most ideas acquire through language

Where does Aristotle say you get raw insights from?

Pre-existing knowledge

What do materialists say?

What you can see/touch

What do idealist say?

everything we see/feel in our mind which is not physical

What does aristotle say are the common objects of hearing?


What does aristotle say are the common objects of sight?

Shape size , location

What is the name for the other object? ( not hearing or sight)


What does david Meyers say philsophical psychologist study?

They INFER mental processes, and OBSERVE behavior

if you completely know the DNA you know how something biological is being organized. You have to understand the brain and nerve impluses that connect eyes and ears to the brain.

What materialist beleive

Waht are the materialists 3 different answers for consciousness?

Radical Behaviorism, Brain Mind Identity, Epiphenominalism

If you know where every atom in the universe was in relation to every other one and the directions they were going in and you knew every law they obeyed you could predict the future of the universe for the rest of time

Theory of determinism

What are these?

1. Augmentation- size change

2. Locomotion - location change

3. Altercation - changing shape

3 kinds of accidental changes

What are these?

1. Subject

2. INitial state

3. Final state

3 concepts things you need to explain change

What are three kinds of change?



Mixing and Unmixing

What are substances and accidents?

substances can exist on their own

and accident is the characteristic - shape or size of a rock tree

What does Aquinas say we are?

One single substance made up of soul and matter (body). When er die and go to heaen we cant sense things (Hear,smell, etc) but can THINK. matter of potenct is not essential for the souls to exist

Why is it important to know if we have a soul?

When you plan your future life you can know how much you are planning for

Epi-determinalists believe?

you have no free will

What does Kant say is the number one thing we have to learn?

Moral Law. Nothing makes sense unless we have free will (many people think free will was proven false through quantum theory.)