Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the physiology of the BG?

Inputs signals to the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus.

Outputs signals.

What are the components of the anatomy of the BG?


Subthalamic nucleus,

Globus pallidus (internal),

Substantia nigra pars reticulata,

Globus pallidus (external),

Substantia nigra pars comparta/ventral segmental

What are the two areas of the BG and their architecture?

Internal architecture:

Direct and indirect pathways

Projection topographies

Input/Output architecture:

Inputs, Outputs, Cortical loops

Sub-cortical loops

What is the function of the BG?

Action selection

Reinforcement learning

BG are a fundamental processing unit! They are an essential component of all vertebrate brains.

What is evolutionary conservatism?

Medina & Reiner (1995):

BG in all vertebrates have very similar connections & neurotransmitters, suggesting that the evolution of BG in all amniates has been very conservative.

BG are suitably connected & configured to serve as a specialised action-selection mechanism.

What is the implication of the evolutionary conservatism of the BG? What could offer important clues and why?

IF BG have been conserved as much as we think, THEN problems BG initially evolved to solve are still as much problems for us today as they were for the early vertebrates.

Subcortical systems could provide important clues, because all vertebrates have solutions to the problems of staying alive & reproduction.

Describe the modular architecture for multifunctional systems (including the brain!)

Largely independent parallel processing units.

Each with:

- Specific functional objectives

- Specialised sensory input

- Specialised behavioural output

What is microarchitecture that is common across all functional territories?

External inputs:

Cerebral cortex

Limbic system

Brainstem via thalamus

Internal inputs:




What does stimulation of BG model demonstrate?

Competent dynamic signal selection based on relative input saliences

What does the robot demonstrate about the BG?

That action selection is a core aspect of BGs function

What is the fundamental architecture of BG?

Cortically based loops (Limbic, Sensory, Associative, Motor)

Describe the loops in the BG.

There are pre-cortical loops through BG.

To date, available experimental evidence suggests that dopaminergic neurons will signal all that 'glisters' including 'gold'.

This may diminish their capacity to report accurate reward prediction errors.

What is the distinction between cortical and sub-cortical loops?

Cortical loops:

Sensory input: loop round from Cerebral cortex, Striatum, Substantia Nigra/Globus Pallidus (internal): Motor output

Sub-cortical loops:

Sensory input: loop round from Sub-cortical structures, Thalamus, Striatum, Substantia Nigra/Globus Pallidus (internal): Motor output