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85 Cards in this Set

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Italian Renascence/Unification

Count Cavour and King VictorEmmanuel II· 1858-1859: Gains of the Treatyof Villa-Franca· Religion: The Italian Conquestof the Papal States, 1870

Pope Pius IX (Papayas Nein)

Coronated Napoleon

o Pope sovereign over country à papal states§ Temporal ruler§ Essential to idea and practical application of papacy for pope tocontrol lando Papal states getting in the wayof unification· Liberal secular monarchy tryingto be established· Pope called upon Napoleon IIIand he got involved in the war in mid 1850so French king backing papacyo After a few years NIII withdrewfrom the situationo Treaty of Villa Franca à gains to Emmanuel· Pope Pius IX: Last Stand ofPapal Armyo Had to defend what was left ofpapal stateso Papacy had within its controlan army


The strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary importance. Also, the belief that a people who share a common language, history, and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination.

Schlieffen Plan

the operational plan for a designated attack on France once Russia, in response to international tension, had started to mobilise her forces near the German border. The execution of the Schlieffen Plan led to Britain declaring war on Germany on August 4th, 1914.

Central Powers (WWI)

Germany,Austria, Hungary, Russia

Trench Warfare

o No one would think fightingwould last this longo Gun was now machine gun§ Machine which shot bullets and killed pplo Advanced technology – quickerways to kill more pplo Industrial Revolution meetingwarfare

Allied Powers (WWI)

France,Britain, and Russia [later]

Paris Peace Conference

The meeting of the Allied victors, following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers

Wilsonian Contradictions· Was the war really fought tokeep the world safe for democracy?· Place of Moralityo Foreign policy should be shapedby morality· No new imperialismo No use of US power abroado Asked congress to declareindependence for Philippines· Providing a rationale for thewaro Made carnage justifiedo Optimism in his 14 Points

War Guilt Clause

The opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.

Also, one of the main thingies that lead Hitler into coming to power.

Treaty of London (1915)

a secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy to gain the alliance of Italy against its former allies, including Germany.

Dulce et decorum est

a poem written by Wilfred Owen during World War I, "to die for one's country"

Wilson's Fourteen Points

Self-determination of politicallife of countrieso Individual and peacefulo Tries to set framework ofpost-world order· An issue of Justiceo Wants to create foundation forwhat will be known as internationaljustice· Free Marketso Lower trade barriers· Proposed equation for colonies· Creation of league of nations

National self-determination

Part of Wilson's 14 points

o Individual and peacefulo Tries to set framework ofpost-world order

Every nation has self determination, duh

Bolshevik revolution

A revolution that overthrew the czar and brought the Bolsheviks, a Communist party led by Lenin, to power.

Treaty of Berlin (1921)

The treaty laid the foundations for a U.S.-German cooperation not under the strict supervision of the League of Nations.

Alexander Kerensky

o First forced Czar out of power

Vladimir Lenin

a Marxist and principally a revolutionary. His revolutionary theory—the belief in the necessity of a violent overthrow of capitalism through communist revolution

His political theories are known as Leninism.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and theCentral Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I.

Czar Nicholas II

Executed and started the Russian Civil War


An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.


any political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland. As such irredentism tries to justify its territorial claims on the basis of (real or imagined) historic and/or ethnic affiliations.

Battle of Adowa

Battle between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray. It was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War, securing Ethiopian sovereignty.

Enrico Corradini

an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and nationalist political figure

Precursorto Mussolini: Enrico Corradini’s nationalism

Benito Mussolini

- Mussolini:Facism: Phenomenon of the Left or the Right?o Mussolini’sMarch on Rome, 1922o Mussolini’sOpposition – Luigi Sturzo and the Partito Popolare (ChristianDemocracy) Facism is a pacifistIt is the opposite ofMarxism/communismIt is Anti-liberal(anti-democratic)Mussolini’sdefinition of Pacism It si a conception of the state The state as absolute Individuals and groups are relative only in their relation to the state.

Black Shirts

Mussolini's fuckbois/fightingbands, groups of fighters comprised of former fighters of WWI looking foremployment and political acceptance. His “thugs.” Caught the imagination ofItaly. Handsome and impressive. The question of what fascism was doing.Accelerating the nationalist put forward by Corradini. These Black Shirts weremeant to beat up political opponents

March on Rome

a march by which Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party

Don Luigi Sturzo

an Italian Catholic priest and politician. Known in his lifetime as a "clerical socialist," Sturzo is considered one of the fathers of Christian democracy

Christian Democracy

a Christian democratic[8][9] political party in Italy. The DC was founded in 1943 as the ideological successor of the historical Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield

Rerum Nonarum

Latin for "of revolutionary change"

Pope Leo XIII – Rerum Novarum· Question of what he should sayabout the dichotomy between socialism and capitalism· Taking on a political andcultural issue but sees it as a religious one· Personal freedom abnegatedo Socialism creates opiate forpeople· Dies Marxism when he talksabout classo Should not be hostile to oneanothero Humans should be in harmony withone another· Full support for unionso Talks about rights ofindividuals and workerso Sees religious value inassociations of workers

1929 Lateran Accords

agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question". They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on February 11, 1929. The Italian parliament ratified them on June 7, 1929. Italy was then under a Fascist government, but the succeeding democratic governments have all upheld the treaty

Our definition of fascism

· a set of ideologies andpractices that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological,cultural, cand or historical terns, above all other sources of loyalty, and toacreate a mobilize national community.· Fascist nationalism isreactionary in that it entails hostility to socialism and communism. This iswhy fascism is a movement of the extreme right· Fascism is also a movement ofthe radical right because the defeat of socialism and the creation of mobilizednation are held to depend upon the advance to power of a new elite acting inthe name of the people, headed by a charismatic leader, and embodied in a mass,militarized party· Fascists are pushed towardsconservatism by common hatred of socialism and communism a but are prepared tooverride conservative interests – family, property, religion, and civil service– where the interests of the nation are considered to require it· All aspects of fascist policyare suffused with ultranationalismily:å

Weimar Republic

a name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government.

Article 48 of the Weimar constitution

the President, under certain circumstances, to take emergency measures without the prior consent of the Reichstag.

Heinrich Building

Heinrich Himmler's building?


the body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945 including the totalitarian principle of government, predominance of especially Germanic groups assumed to be racially superior, and supremacy of the führer.

Beer Hall Butsch

a failed coup attempt by the Nazi

Mein Kampf

Hitler's book written in prison that was anti-semantic


a movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations for the theoretical benefit of all.


the perspective in sociology according to which society consists of different but related parts, each of which serves a particular purpose.
Religious Cold War

Was there a “religious cold war”?· Characteristics of such a waro Religion plays a big role hereo this war starts with roosevelt· A theology of waro Fashions WWII as a strugglebetween fascism and imperialism of Japan and democracyo uses religion language to define the crisiso feels that Americans in their psychology, o four freedoms – why we fight and try to win the war· WWII and Religion – FDR and the religious turn· The Four Freedoms – Freedom ofWorshipo Jan 6, 1941 – 4 Freedoms Speecho proposed 4 fundamental freedoms which everyone in the world ought toenjoy§ 1)freedom of speech§ 2) freedom of worship (to worship god in his or her own wayeverywhere in the world)§ 3) Freedom from want§ 4)Freedom from fear FDR’s Equation on Religion and the ReligiousCold War· The three Pillars ofCivilization for FDRo 1) Religion§ without religion, you can’t have the other twoo 2) Democracy§ without democracy, you can’t have international good willo 3) International good will· The Equation: (Andrew Preston,Cambridge University) o arguing that religion is source of conscience and source of democraticpoliticso FDR sees Nazis as threat to religion à threat to one basis of democracy itself· Carry-over to Pres. Truman andthe Cold War Two Aspects ofReligious Cold War· Global nature· Eschatological Islam and Religious Cold War

Four Freedoms

§ 1)freedom of speech§ 2) freedom of worship (to worship god in his or her own wayeverywhere in the world)§ 3) Freedom from want§ 4)Freedom from fear

German-Soviet non-Aggression pact

An agreement between germany and the USSR to not attack each other, which Hitler broke

Priest Dipping


Yalta conference

a meeting of British prime minister Winston Churchill, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt early in February 1945 as World War II was winding down.

Lublin Group

Stalin's puppet group to keep a communist buffer in Poland

Polish Government in exile

the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.

Josef Stalin

the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

Igor Gourzenko

a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. He defected on September 5, 1945, with 109 documents on Soviet espionage activities in the West. Wikipedia

Truman Doctrine

President Harry S. Trumanestablished that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.

Marshall LaPira Plan

an American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave $17 billion (approximately $120 billion in current dollar value) in economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II.


Removing rule from a conlny

French Union

a political entity created by the FrenchFourth Republic to replace the old Frenchcolonial system, the "French Empire" (Empire Français). It was the formal end of the "indigenous" (indigène) status of Frenchsubjects in colonial areas.

Non-Settler Colonies

o colonies where colonial power officials were sent§ only administrative peopleo administrative colonies§ advised on the outside àeconomic efficiencyo more conducive to move fromcolony to independent state§ peaceful transitionR3N
Settler Colonies

o colonies where mother country had not just sent administrators butentire swats of their population to live in this colonies themselveso personal nationalism seemed to spikeo greater sensitivity to colonial powero settlers identify with nationalism of origin rather than thesettlemento great deal of attention when indigenous people move towardindependenceo cognitive dissonanceo resistance occurs§ paramilitary – national liberation front§ bloody civil war in Algeria (granted independence 1962)ѥ

Civil Rights Movement


Brown vs Board of Education

You should know this

Letter from a Birmingham Jail

MLK's letter from jail

New Journalism

Video and photograph footage now prevelant


§ wanted to prevent the spread of worldwide communism (includingliberals)§ feeling that its democratic Americas to check worldwide expansion ofcommunism§ consensus about global anti-communism§ Kennedy and his domino theory à if one country fell then other countries would followú Felt that Malaysia was next to fall


o Global pacifism§ Call for military withdraw§ Typically young§ Used religion to spread their views§ Aware that South Vietnamese president moving away from democracy

Tet Offensive

campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam

League for Industrial Democracy

Direct Action

the use of strikes, demonstrations, or other public forms of protest rather than negotiation to achieve one's demands.

Students for a democratic society

Hostage Crisis

trigger for Islamic Fundamentalism?· Prior to this difficulty,Carter’s administration made some great gains

Supply-Side Ecomomics

a school of macroeconomics that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering barriers for people to produce (supply) goods and services as well as invest in capital.

Hungarian Revolution of 1956

a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies

Leonid Brezhnev

the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982

Alexander Dubcek

the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982

Prague Spring

the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms.

Brezhnev Doctrine

irst and most clearly outlined by S. Kovalev in a September 26, 1968, Pravda article, entitled "Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries." Leonid Brezhnev reiterated it in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party on November 13, 1968, which stated:

Lech Walesa

a Polish politician, trade-union organizer, philanthropist and human-rights activist.


unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with a common interest; mutual support within a group.

Jerry Falwell

an American evangelical Southern Baptist pastor, televangelist, and a conservative political commentator. known for his stance against homosexuality


the policy or practice of more open consultative government and wider dissemination of information, initiated by leader Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985.


the policy or practice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system. First proposed by Leonid Brezhnev in 1979 and actively promoted by Mikhail Gorbachev, perestroika originally referred to increased automation and labor efficiency, but came to entail greater awareness of economic markets and the ending of central planning.

Human Rights (Marshall you'd better get this one right)

The basic rights of a human, duh

Mikhail Gorbachev

a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 when the party was dissolved


MFA Propaganda Poster Exhibit

Propaganda and whatnot


Christian Front Lecture



Night by Wiesel

Holocaust book


You can change the world, Leo McCarey



King Leopold's Ghost

Umm yeah this book


Describe how American Christian perceptions of Muslims and American Christian strats for evangelizing Muslims both influenced one another and changed over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries.



Can we say that there was such a thing as a "Religious Cold War"?