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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

13 Types of Functional Organ Systems

  1. Skin
  2. Muscular
  3. Connective Tissue
  4. Skelatal
  5. Cardiovascular
  6. Respiratory
  7. Gastrointestinal
  8. Nervous
  9. Filtration & Excretory
  10. Lymphatic
  11. Sensory
  12. Reproductive
  13. Endocrine


  • Covers the body and connects to the mucous membranes of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as the conjunctivae of the eyelids, the lacrimal duct, and the typanic membrane
  • Acts as a physical barrier between the environment and underlying tissues
  • Assists in regulation of temperature and hydration as well as sensation
  • Consists of the epidermis, dermis, and a subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue
  • Consists of connective tissue bed containing blood vessels, lymphatics, muscles, and nerve endings covered by a stratified squamous epithelium

3 Types of Muscles

  1. Smooth
  2. Cardiac
  3. Skeletal

Smooth Muscle

  • Smooth found in the walls of hollow organs and inblood vessels and is under the control of the autonomous nervous system
  • No striations
  • Cannotbe voluntarily controlled
  • Spindle shapedand without striations
  • Makesup almost all visceral muscle except cardiac muscle
  • Linesthe interior of blood vessels
  • Usedfor slow, steady contractions
  • Involved in the movement of food and wasteproducts in the GI tract and bladder
  • Involvedin vasoconstriction
  • Organizedinto sheets of fiberssurrounded with endomysium and connected by strandsof collagen and elastin

Cardiac Muscle

  • forms the bulk of the heart and is optimized for rhythmic contractions under the control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  • Found only in the heart
  • Striated (but shorter than skeletal)
  • Cannot be voluntarily controlled
  • Works in steady, rhythmic fashion
  • Controlled by the heart’s pacemaker
  • Short and branched
  • Surrounded by endomysium and connected by intercalated discs

Skeletal Muscle

  • forms bundles surrounded by connective tissue envelopes largely controlled by the somatic nervous system (SNS)
  • Longest muscle cell types
  • Striated
  • Can be voluntarily controlled
  • Made of hundreds to thousands of individual muscle cells called fibers
  • Muscle fibers are enclosed in connective tissue called endomysium
  • Fibers are gathered into bundles called fascicles bound by perimysium
  • Fascicles are bound together by epimysium


more fixed point of muscle attachment


more movable point of muscle attachment

In limbs the insertion is...

always distal to the origin

6 Types of Movement

  1. Extensor
  2. Flexor
  3. Adduction
  4. Abduction
  5. Circumduction
  6. Rotation


opens a joint or straightens the bone alignment


closes a jointor angulates the bones


moves the extremity toward the median plane (MP)


moves the extremity away from the MP or the axis of the limb


moves anextremity in a plane represented by a cone


moves a part along its long axis

Connective Tissue

  • Provide routes for nerves and blood vessels
  • Envelope, separate, or connect muscles, nerves and blood and lymphatic vessels
  • May blend with the periosteum of bone


connective tissue covering bone


connective tissue covering cartilage

a serous membrane largely made of connective tissue

Parietal peritoneum

covers the abdominal, pelvic, and scrotal cavities

Visceral peritoneum

covers the abdominal, pelvic, and scrotal organs
Connecting peritoneum
connects organs to other organs or the parietal peritoneum
Common Dorsal Mesentery
peritoneal fold which incorporates most of the abdominal organs

fibrous sac that envelopes the heart


fibrous sheet that separates the two sides of the thoracic cavity and incorporates the heart, thymus, vena cava, and aorta


serous membranes that line the thoracic cavity and cover the lungs

Protective membranes covering the brain and spinal column

Dura Mater

thick, fibrous, and the most superficial of the meninges
Arachnoid membrane
delicate and lines the deep surface of the dura mater
Pia mater
delicate and coats the surface of the brain, spinal cord, nerve roots, and the optic nerve


  • “The framework that the body hangs on”
  • Supports and protects the body
  • Provides attachment points for the muscles and acts as levers for motion
  • Made up of individual bones connected by ligaments and muscles

2 Types of Bone Tissue

  1. Compact Bone
  2. Spongy Bone

5 Types of Bones

  1. Long Bone
  2. Short Bone
  3. Sesamoid Bone
  4. Flat Bone
  5. Irregular Bone

Long Bone

consists of a shaft (diaphysis) with two extremities (proximal and distal epiphysis)

Short Bone

  • roughly cube like, primarily spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone
  • Bones of the wrist and ankle

Sesamoid Bone

  • is a short bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule
  • i.e., the patella

Flat Bone

  • a thin bone with spongy bone called diploe encased in compact bone
  • The sternum, the ribs, and most bones of the skull

Irregular Bone

  • bones that don’t fit into the previous categories
  • Vertebrae, pelvis, some skull bones

Structure of a flat bone, outside to inside

  1. Periosteum (outside)
  2. Compact bone
  3. Spongy bone
  4. Medullary cavity (inside)

Spongy Bone

contains either red bone marrow or a medullary cavity containing yellow bone marrow

Medullary Cavity

in spongy bone

internal termination of compact bone


fibrous tissue lining compact bone


Storage site for calcium and phosphorus

Bone components produce...

red and several types of white blood cells

12 Bones of the Skull

  1. incisive
  2. nasal
  3. maxilla
  4. zygomatic
  5. lacrimal
  6. frontal
  7. palatine
  8. pterygoid
  9. sphenoid
  10. parietal
  11. occipital
  12. temporal

2 Crests of Occipital Bone

Sagittal and nuchal crests

main weight supporters of lower limbs

radius and tibia

Number of Bone in Dog

~321 Bones

Number of Separate Bones in Dog Skull & Hyoid


Number of Vertebrae in Dog


Number bones in Dog Sternum


Number of Ribs in Dog


Number of Bones in Dog Forelimbs


Number of Bones in Dog Hindlimbs


Os penis

1 found in male dogs


Where bones are joined by fibrous, elastic and/or cartilaginous tissue


Fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone


Fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone

3 Joint Functions

  1. Synarthroses
  2. Amphiarthroses
  3. Diarthroses

Synarthroses Joint Function

permits no movement

skull bones, teeth

Amphiarthroses Joint Function

permits slight movement

vertebrae, pelvis

Diarthroses Joint Function

permits free movement

knee, elbow

3 Joint Structures

  1. Fibrous
  2. Cartilaginous
  3. Synovial

Fibrous Joint Structure

bones are joined by fibrous tissue, no joint cavity exists (skull sutures, teeth) and provide little or no movement

Cartilaginous Joint Structure

bones areunited by cartilage, no joint cavity exists(Epiphyseal disc, intervertebral disc), and permits compression or stretching

Synovial Joint Structure

bonesare separated by a joint cavity and permits significant movement

7 Types of Synovial Joints

  1. Plane
  2. Ball & Socket
  3. Ellipsoidal
  4. Hinge
  5. Condylar
  6. Trochoid
  7. Saddle Joint

5 Main Components of Synovial Joints

  1. Articular cartilage covering the bone at the joint
  2. Has limited regeneration capabilities
  3. Articular capsule encloses the joint in an outer fibrous capsule and an inner synovial membrane
  4. Hip and knee joints have a fatty pad between the fibrous capsule and the synovial membrane or bone
  5. Joint cavity is the potential space within the articular capsule that is filled with a nutrient and waste transporting fluid called synovial fluid
  6. Synovial fluid is a lubricant made of hyaluronic acid thinned by interstitial fluid from blood plasma
  7. Reinforcing ligaments reinforce and strengthen the joint (intrinsic, extracapsular, intracapsular)


Fibruous tissue connected to the bone by Sharpey's fibers