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121 Cards in this Set

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Style
an artist’s distinctive manner of producing an object, the way it looks
canon of proportions
a rule of what is considered “correct” proportions.
composition
the way in which an artist organized forms in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or arranging forms in space
form
an object’s shape and structure, either in two dimensions or in three dimensionsan object’s shape and structure, either in two dimensions or in three dimensions
hierarchy of scale / hieratic scale
an artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance
line
the extension of a point along a path, made by drawing on or chiseling into a plane
medium
the material in which an artist works
space
both the actual area an object occupies or building encloses, or the illusion of space in a painting/sculpture
technique
the process artists employ to create form, as well as the distinctive, personal ways in which they handle their materials and tools
texture
the quality of a surface, such as rough or shiny
perspective
a method of presenting an illusion of the three dimensional world on a two dimensional surface
foreshortening
the use of perspective to represent the apparent visual contraction of a subject.
additive sculpture
a kind of sculpture technique in which the materials are built up or added to create form
high relief
figures project a good deal from the background which they are a part of
low-relief (bas relief)
where the figures are carved into the stone so that the highest part of the sculpture is no higher then the stone itself
subtractive sculpture
a kind of sculpture technique where the materials are built up or added to create form
elevation
architecture - head on view of external or internal wall
plan
architecture - horizontal arrangements of the parts of a building or a city
section
architecture - diagram or representation of a part of a structure or building
patrons
the person or entity that commissions an artist to create artwork
in situ
a work of art made specifically for a host site or takes into account the site where it will be displayed
causality
the relationship between cause and effect
iconography
the writing of images in an artwork/ the study of symbolic content in an artwork

Twisted Perspective

A convention of representation in which part of afigure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally

Narrative

A story

Megalith

Greek, “great stone.” A large, roughly hewn stone used in the construction of monumental prehistoric structures.

Post and Lintel System

A system of construction in which twoposts support a lintel.

Sumerian

Akkadian

Babylonian

Assyrian

Neo-Babylonian

Persian

Fresco

Painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet

Megaron

The great hall of the Grecian palace complexes


Comunal Hall/ Feast/ Religious Events

Cella

The chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classicaltemple, the room (Greek, naos) in which the cult statue usuallystood.

Classical Period

The art and culture of ancient Greece between480 and 323 bce.

Hellenistic Period

The term given to the art and culture of the roughlythree centuries between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and the death of Queen Cleopatra in 30 bce, when Egypt became a Roman province.

Tuscan Columns

The standard type of Etruscan column. It resemblesancient Greek Doric columns but is made of wood, is unfluted, and has a base

Sarcophagus

Greek, “consumer of flesh.” A coffin,usually of stone.

Forum

The public square of an ancient Roman city.

Basilica

In Roman architecture, a public buildingfor legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan, with an entrance usually on a long side

Pilaster

A flat, rectangular, vertical member projecting from a wallof which it forms a part

Arch

A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmitthe downward pressure laterally

Triumphal Arch

In Roman architecture, a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or theopening of a new road.

Coffer

A sunken panel, often ornamental, in a vault or a ceiling.

Dome

A hemispherical vault; theoretically, an arch rotated on its vertical axis. In Mycenaean architecture, domes are beehive-shaped.

Catacombs

Subterranean networks of rock-cut galleries and chambers designed as cemeteries for the burial of the dead.

Orant Figures

A figure with both arms raised in theancient gesture of prayer

Cubicula

A small cubicle or bedroom that openedonto the atrium of a Roman domus

Nave

The central area of an ancient Roman basilica or of a church,demarcated from aisles by piers or columns.

Aisle

The portion of a basilica flanking the nave and separated fromit by a row of columns or piers

Apse

A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a building, commonly found at the east end of a church.

Transept

The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle.

Longitudinal Plan

In an axial plan, the parts of a building are organized longitudinally, or along a given axis

Central Plan

The parts of the structure are of equal or almost equaldimensions around the center.

Mosaic

Patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces (tesserae) of stone or glass in cement on surfaces such as walls andfloors

Pendentive

A concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four ofwhich provide the transition from a square area to the circular base of a covering dome.

Mosque

The Islamic building for collective worship. From the Arabic word masjid, meaning a “place for bowing down.

Minbar

In a mosque, the pulpit on which the imam stands

Koran

Islam’s sacred book, composed of surahs (chapters) dividedinto verses.

Mihrab

A semicircular niche set into the qibla wall of a mosque.

Carpet Pages

In early medieval manuscripts, a decorative pageresembling a textile.

Scriptorium

The writing studio of a monastery.

Illuminated Manuscripts

A luxurious handmade book with paintedillustrations and decorations.

Monastery

A group of buildings in which monks live together, setapart from the secular community of a town

Cloister

A monastery courtyard, usually with covered walks or ambulatories along its sides.

Relics

The body parts, clothing, or objects associated with a holy figure, such as the Buddha or Christ or a Christian saint.

Parchment

Lambskin prepared as a surface for painting or writing

Hiberno-Saxon Art

An art style that flourished in the monasteries of the British Isles in the early Middle Ages

Carolingian

Pertaining to the empire of Charlemagne (Latin, “Carolus Magnus”) and his successors

Ottonian

Pertaining to the empire of Otto I and his successors

Pilgrimage

A journey to a place associated with someone or something well known or respected.

Tympanum

The space enclosed by a lintel and an archover a doorway.

Radiating Chapels

In medieval churches, chapels for the display ofrelics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept.

Barrel Vault

semicylindrical in cross-section, is in effect a deep arch or an uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, over an oblong space

Groin Vault

formed at the point at which two barrel vaults inter- sect at right angles

Lux Nova

Latin, “new light.” Abbot Suger’s term for the light thatenters a Gothic church through stained-glass windows.

Rib Vault

framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting sections

Flying Buttress

A flying buttress consists typically of an inclined member carried on an arch or a series of arches and a solid buttress to which it transmits lateral thrust.


Buttress- exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault. A pier buttress is a solid mass of masonry.

Rose window

A circular stained-glass window.

Venus of Willendorf,ca. 25,000 BCE. Limestone. (Paleolithic)

Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux, France,ca. 15,000 BCE.(Paleolithic)

Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain,England, ca. 2000 BCE. (Neolithic)

Zigguratof Ur-Nammu, Iraq, c. 2100 B.C.E. (Sumerian)

Akkadian ruler, Iraq, ca. 2300 BCE.Copper. (Akkadian)

Victory stele of Naram-Sin,Iran, ca. 2254 BCE. Limestone. (Akkadian)

Great Pyramids, Giza, Egypt,ca. 2575 BCE. (Egyptian)

Khafre Enthroned, ca. 2520 BCE. Diorite. (Egyptian)

Akhenaton, ca. 1353 BCE. Sandstone.(Egyptian)

Figure of a Woman, ca. 2600 BCE.Marble. (Cycladic)

Bull-leaping, from Palace atKnossos, ca. 1450 BCE. Fresco.(Minoan)

Lion Gate, Mycenae, Greece, ca.1300 BCE. Limestone. (Mycenaean)

Polykleitos, Doryphoros. Original ca. 450 BCE. Marble.(Greece: Classical Period)

Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447 BCE. (Greece: Classical Period)

Three goddesses, East pediment ofthe Parthenon, Athens, Greece, ca. 432 BCE. Marble.(Greece: Classical Period)

Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, ca. 350 BCE. Marble.(Greece: Classical Period)

6th-century BCE Etruscan temple(Etruscan).

Apulu, Portonaccio temple, Veii, Italy, ca. 500 BCE.Painted terracotta.(Etruscan)

Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, Italy, ca. 480 BCE. (Etruscan)

Fourth Style wall paintings, Houseof the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 CE.(Rome: The Empire)

Portrait of Augustus as General,ca. 20 BCE. Marble. (Rome: The Empire)

The Colosseum, Rome, Italy, 70 CE. (Rome:The Empire)

Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118 CE.(Rome: The Empire)

The Good Shepherd, the Story ofJonah, and Orants, Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early 4th century. Fresco. (Early Christian)

Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, San Vitale,Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547. Mosaic. (Byzantine)

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey, 532 CE.(Byzantine)

Koran page, 9th century. Ink and gold on vellum. (Islamic)

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687.(Islamic)

Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran, begun11th century. (Islamic)

Book of Kells, late 8th century. Tempera on vellum.(Early Medieval)

Doors, Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze.(Early Medieval)

Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca.1070.(Romanesque)

Pentecost and Mission of theApostles, La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120.(Romanesque)

Chartres Cathedral, Chartres,France, ca. 1145. (Gothic)

Rose window, Chartres Cathedral,ca. 1220. Stained glass.(Gothic)

Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, 1339. Silver gilt andenamel.(Gothic)

Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1647.

Army of the First Emperor of Qin, Lintong, China, ca. 210 BCE. Painted terracotta.

Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains andStreams, early 11th century. Hangingscroll, ink and colors on silk. (Chinese)

Hokusai, The Great Wave at Kanagawa,1830. Woodblock print. (Japanese)