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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Mengs, Parnassus, (1760)

-sketch for fresco in Rome

-overcoming Baroque and going toward Neoclassicim

-influence by Raphael, in the center is sun God Apollo

Kauffman, Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Treasures, (1785)


-dissing the lady, saying she is not materialistic

-very lit, nothing hidden

-she started British Royal Academy

Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, (1770)

-modern history painting

-grand manner = new genre between history and portrait

-dressed in modern costume

-figures still noble

Fuseli, The Nightmare, (1781)

-Romanticism, emotion of fear, engaging imagination

-not popular with critics of time

-supernatural, woman is dreaming of demons/shadowy

Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808 (1815)

-Spain, he studied under neoclassicist

-worked for king but supported revolution

-painting of historical event

-bloody fighting, execution

-terror + fear, empathize w/ figure in white

-faceless, off balance composition

Gros, Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa (1805)

-depiction of conquest into Africa

-travelled with Napoleon on conquests

-Colonial politics

Gericault, The Raft of the "Medusa" (1820)


-political statement about monarchy/nobility

-eye drawn diagonally, left bottom to top right

-romantic = subject matter not style

-green/yellow tint to bodies

Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People: July 28 1830 (1830)

-obsessed with genius + emotion

-hopeful image = overthrowing

-monumentalized uprising = modern history painting

-allegorical figure (freedom) = triangle shape

Ingres, Large Odalisque, (1814)

-overlying themes of orientalism

-idealization of figure; erotically charged

-during Napoleon's monarchy, North Africa

-blue & white; extravagant; wealthy

-very linear, clarity

Gerome, The Snake Charmer, (1870)

-director of Academy of Arts

-Far east = orientalism (focused on Egypt)

-painting about disclosure and concealment

-painting about a performer (so about the audience)

-walls intricately designed but the floor is dirty/cracked

Daguerre, The Artist's Studio, (1840)

-very interested in photography

-"Daguerreotype" photograph on highly finished plate; highly detailed

-couldn't be easily reproduced, spread across world from France

Joseph Turner, Slaves Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying; "The Slave Ship" (1840)

-emphasis on weather/hectic

-sublime/disorganization of painting

-force of nature, atmospheric effect

-romantic seascape about a political event =abolition of salve trade (depth/depravity)

James Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold, The Falling Rocket, (1875)

-aesthetic, construction of reality

-abstract qualities of art w/ music

-restricted in tones = greens and yellows

-night scene depicting fireworks

-started traditional one row (eye level) hanging of paintings

Honore Daumier, Rue Transnonain, (1830)

-almost a caricature of results of massacre by French Revolution


-dead family

-created during freedom of the press

Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans, (1849)

-"statement of principle"

-dark colors of green and grey, give weight to figures

-used canvas of dimensions (usually for history paintings) to present an ordinary subject (no idealization)

Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners, (1860)

-incarnate rural working class

-picking up individual ears of corn while huge harvest is in background

-slanting light of setting sun = sculptural look

-thankless task

Manet, Olympia (1863)

-modeled after Venus of Orbino

-paints realistic woman, not historical or mythological

-challenges function of art in France

-stiff, her gaze is intimidating

Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, (1880)

-representation of modernity (early modernism in flatness)

-emerging because of industrial revolution

-social conditions of everyday life

Henry Ossawa Tanner, The Banjo Lesson (1890)

-race is another group forgotten in traditional work

-serious side of something that has been caricatured

-loving, elderly man teaching young boy

-poverty fades, dignity and pride focused

-European modernism

Claude Monet, Impression: Sunrise (1870)

-beginning of impressionism (very controversial)

-fast, open brushstrokes. Unfinished look

-independent from academy + salon

-momentary impressions of nature

Mary Cassatt, Mother and Child, (1890)

-weight of limbs have natural quality

-wrapped in each other = circle

dress dissolves into strokes of paint

-homage to motherhood

-woman as subject instead of object

-connection between woman and vessel

Edgar Degas, The Rehearsal on Stage (1875)

-paints in studio, ballet dancers are "urban workers"

-closer to academic standards, pastels over brush and ink drawing

-dancers have tedious lives, men pay to watch

-looking through a theater box, fragments of instruments in foreground

"On Painting"

Leo Battista Alberti

Good Narrative Painting:

1. derived from nature

2. has divine power

3. serves purpose to artist and audience

Skill and talent of artist rather than the worth of the painting (Humanist values)

"Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects"

Georgio Vasari

-definite improvement between ancient and modern art

-art has made progress because of master and apprentice

-ancient contributed proportion, rule, order, and manner; modern makes art 'come alive'

"Art History and its Exclusions: The Example of Dutch Art"

Svetlana Alpers

-Italy is birthplace of the Renaissance and discussion of art history

-artists views are biased because Italy has defined tradition of Western art

-ideas: painting is art's ideal form and should be hung in rectangles on wall

-Dutch: description of natural world, more women artists

-art history is all perception

"The Street has its Masters: Caravaggio and Marginal Social Identities"

Todd Olson

-response to Bellori on Caravaggio

-Bellori compliments use of shadow and color to create realistic figures

-his work was simple and basic, disrespectful to religious work (from older artists)

-Olson doesn't like that eyes are drawn to small details (like tattered cloth)

"On Romanticism from his Journal"

Eugene Delacroix

-primary source

-believes in simplicity and organization of the mind

-painting is one of the most intimate forms of communication

-believes only a select few have talent

-artistic genius = one who is able to be committed and inspired w/o having wandering/impressionable mind

"The Painter of Modern Life"

Charles Baudelaire

-modernism = ability to capture eternal beauty in "the ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent"

-every artist has a sense of modernity

-takes something fleeting and makes it eternal

-genius = main quality is curiosity, "man of the world"

-nature is ultimate source of knowledge

-artist by himself is not genius

"The 'Primitive' Unconscious of Modern Art"

Hal Foster

-issue with 1984 MOMA exhibition 'Primitivism'

-no common theme between work

-doesn't use primitivism in modern age, digs up archaeological runs and calls it primitivism

-primitivism = western art with non-western influence

-primitivism was invented to allow audience to absorb ideas/culture of non-westerners and celebrate art

"The American Action Painters"

Harold Rosenberg

-art critic: very broad definitions

-abstract expressionism: doesn't represent object or purpose, solely painter expressing themselves w/o ties to aesthetics (no purpose, style, form b/c it is solely the artist's world)

-wants to free itself from some sort of constraint

-Wants to free itself from purpose and style

"Minimalism and the Rhetoric of Power"

Anna C. Chave

-Minimalism: style defined by geometric shapes and objects

-leftist; art doesn't hold meaning

-reflected violent and disagreeable political period

-power came from monetary value and meaning it held to the artist

"Report on the Western Front: Postmodernism and the Politics of Style"

Dick Hebdige

-many different definitions

-result of the fall of modernism in the late 1980s

-movement away from rebuilding of humanity, lack of belief in progress and modernization, realization that its not the avant-garde

-decline of the West as the center of the power

-other cultures/minorities are better represented

Watteau, The Signboard of Gersaint (1720)

-lots of pastel/interest in color

-interior of art dealer's shop

-glowing satins/silks

momento mori = reminder of mortality

-fame might be subject to ravages of time

Fragonard, The Swing, (1766)

-Rococo: era of radical change

-age of Enlightnment (England + France)

-young girl being pushed by elder bishop (in the shadows) her lover is swooning below her

-anticipation, desire, playful, frothy pinkness

Smibert, Dean Berkeley and His Entourage, (1730)

-Baroque style

-1st artist in America to make living as painter

-painting to commemorate school of Bermuda

Smibert is holding rolled piece of paper (professionalization of art?)

-Berkeley looking upwards, thinking about heaven?

John Singleton Copley, Watson and the Shark, (1778)

-large scale history painting

-climatic rescue of boy from shark

-faces of emotion

-American artist

-idea of salvation

Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, (1780)

-"public" painting

-most important French neoclassicism painter

-severely plain

-based on historical texts (commissioned by Louis XVI

-separating men and women in architectural space

Girodet-Trioson, Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Belley, (1800)

-French artist

-first man of African descent to hold

-lines, public, civic, clarity, realistic

-French philosopher in background

Guillon Lethiere, Oath of the Ancestors, (1820)

-"symbol of liberty of Haitian people"

-celebrates union of black slaves against Napoleon's army

-complicated relationship between emancipated people

-damaged in earthquake

George Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1885)

-combine impressionism with traditional relief sculpture

-"pointalism" or "neoimpressionsim"

-composition that merges in viewer's eye (very large work)

-abstraction/new rules of color

-important social dimensions = French day-off

Paul Gauguin, Manao Tupapau (Spirit of Dead Watching), (1890)

-friend of Van Gogh

-leaves wife and children to do/study art

-painted in Tahiti

-combination of abstraction and emotion

-primitivism: borrowing non-western forms by western artists

Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, (1890)

-six distinguished citizens of France

-each occupied by own person conflict

-monument to Hundred Years' War


Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, (1885)

-highly structured paintings

-ordered nature, 100 drawings/30 paintings of same mountain

-branch in foreground creates depth

-branch traces outline of mountain range

-alternation between depth and flatness

-highly structured and stable

Henry Matisse, Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life), (1905)

-nude paintings

-bright colors

-thick lines/shapes

-fauvism = interested in color

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon (1910)

-forceful, angular planes

-form and content equalized

-women are prostitutes

-lack of depth

-a lot of African inspiration

-enormous, almond-shaped eyes

Braque, Violin and Palette, (1910)

-simplified faceted forms, flattened spatial planes, and muted colors


-objects are recognizable but fractioned

-significance in musical instrument

Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, (1913)

-Futurism: violent, war, muscular, advanced

-blur between form and immediate environment

-fast pace modern world

-marching into the wind

Duchamp, Fountain, (1917)

-urinal lying on its back; iconic

-'readymade' = ordinary manufactured object designated by artist as work of art

-art should be about the artist's idea

Hannah Hoch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, (1920)

-purposefully angry critique

-includes dada and anti-dada (nothing is her own)

-signature is picture of head + map showing countries where women are allowed to vote

Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory (1930)

-wanted to cultivate paranoids' vision of the world

-very small piece of work, dreamlike

-meant for individual viewer

-banks of Mediterannean, warm light in background

-discredits our experience of reality

-hidden portrait


Oppenheim, Object (Luncheon in Fur), (1936)

-revolt against logic/reason

-surrealism = offshoot of dada

-Freudian psychoanalysis

-human mind as battleground

-methods for freeing the unconscious

Joan Miro, Composition, (1933)


-not arranged by logic, arranged by chance


-wanted to assassinate paintings, didn't even like cubism

Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), (1950)

-drinking problems, insane asylum

-moves from representation to abstraction

-says he can control the flow of paint

-painted with canvas on the ground, stood over it

Willem de Kooning, Woman I, (1950)

-Abstract Expressionist

-grotesque representation; powerful colors

-wide range of ways to apply paint to canvas

-she appears flattened out

-figure is outlined in black paint

-"the idol, the Venus, the nude"

-reverence vs. fear of feminism

Helen Frankenthaler, Mountains and Sea, (1950)

-Abstract expressionist

-"soak stain" = paint stained rather than coated the canvas

-textured surface and pale color; breakthrough

-shifting planes of color washes

David Smith, Cubi, (1963)

-28 stainless steel sculptures


-influenced by Surrealism and Constructivism

-highly reflective surface, polished

Jasper Johns, Targer with Plaster Casts, (1955)

-parallel between severed body parts and targets

-possibility of reconstruction? body parts lose meaning

-see targets as lack of meaning held by the body of a gay man

-primary colors, based on dada

-artistic value on interpretation of viewers

Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, (1959)

-painting, collage, and found objects

-defiant to Abstract Expressionism

-bald eagle



Allan Kaprow, Yard, (1960)

-bunch of tires in no specific layout

-interactive = audience walks over tires

-expanded sculpture's possibilities

-new physical sensorium

-New York City

Carolee Schneeman, Meat Joy, (1964)


-assumption that great art can only be made by men

-nude: female and male

-Body Art (performance art)

-Rubbed raw meat and wet paint onto bodies

Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, (1962)

-pop art, half color half B&W

-thinks of himself as a machine

-industrial fabrication

Claes Oldenburg, Store, (1961)

-modeled after a real store but everything was made of plaster

-he studied other stores and cafes for inspiration

-relationship between fiction and fact

-trade money for art

-store was open in NYC

Harmony Hammond, Floorpiece VI, (1973)

-color, made of cloth, spiral

-craft art or fine art? (fine art)

-paint over rug with acryclic paint, emphasizing color of cloth, put on hard surface

Carl Andre, Steel-Magnesium Plain, (1970)

-on the ground

-not colorful, squares, cold, unwelcoming


-tiles can be taken apart, not connected

-uses space to create 'sculpture'

Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs, (1965)

-photo panel, physical chair, text panel

-wasn't interested in artistic beauty

-trying to communicate through minimalism

-one chair or three chairs? how do we define?

-possibility of meaning

Bruce Naumann, Self Portrait as a Fountain, (1970)

-communicate problem of communication

-likening himself to Duchamp's urinal

-not funny/very serious

-revolt against pop art

Eva Hesse, Rope Piece, (1970)

-process art

-rope with latex over it

-dimensions change every time it's installed

-embedded with personal meaning

-fragile, sensuous, delicate


Ana Mendieta, Untitled, From the Tree of Life Series (1977)

-US takes 14,000 Cuban children to America

-permanent sense of dislocation

-ritual actions to connect to Earth

-woman in nature, very un-industrial

-created in Iowa

Beyte Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, (1972)

-part of black power movement

-appropriation = using objects from the world

-militant humor

-black nurse, white baby

-clenched black fist in very center

-mirrors on side of box

-making space for multiculturalism

Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, (1970)

-Earth art/site specific

-manipulates raw materials

-can be temporary or permanent/very large

-extends into Great Salt Lake

-meant to remind people of ancient civilizations

-no maintenance, governed by natural elements

Cindy Sherman, Untitled Fil Still, #21 (1980)

-photography used for postmodernism

-very posted, not candid

-image is more important, not picture from the movie

-2nd wave feminism

-taking the picture of herself

-identity is chosen rather than imposed

-different identities for different audiences

Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of my Face), (1981)

-critiques the forces that try to make women objects

-female statue = symbol of beauty

-violated by men's gaze

James Luna, The Artifact Piece, (1990)

-Native-American identity

-using stereotypes to refer to himself; physically objectifying himself

-ethnographic object

-identity isn't open to everyone; social constraints

Chris Ofili, The Holy Virgin Mary, (1996)

-very controversial, bigger than life

-black African virgin?

-parts made from elephant dung

-cut out pictures of women's butts and put on art

-art and culture of Zimbabwe

-reference to Renaissance paintings

Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Loverboy), (1990)

-stack of pale blue paper, audience can remove a piece of paper

-encouraged to interact

-abstract reference to his lover who is wasting away from AIDs

Nam June Paik, Electronic Superhighway: Continental US, (1995)

-enormous scale of the US

-fluorescent/neon lights

-represents enticement of motels and restaurants

-cultural boundaries between states

-flashing images = "seen from a passing car"

Yinka Shonibare, How to Blow Up Two Heads at Once (Ladies), (2006)

-race is unknown

-wearing traditional English dress but in African print

-pointing 19th century guns at each other

-black artist, paralyzed since his 20s

-ambiguity in art

Sarah Sze, Triple Point, (2013)

-Venice Biennial

-NY based Chinese American sculptor

-art is inside + outside

-engages with the history of the site

-art as a compass = finding yourself

-forced viewers to come through side door

-created fake boulders

-displays tickets and used coffee cups

-scientific overtone