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78 Cards in this Set

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summary of neandertals

-probably desendants from homohyrobogenis

-present in europe and middle east

-first one found in neander valley

-not accepted at first

-1427cc average

-long narrow cranium

-big projecting mid face

-big nasal cavity, buff, low life expectancy, low fore head, large teeth compared to humans, barrel chest, large super orbital torus.

-interbread with humans in europe 1-4%

La chappell aux saint , france

50,000 ya

first ne. site

1625cc but thought they were stupid

not a burial site

La, farrassie, france

La, farrassie, france - two and no evidence of religion

shanidar cave, iraq

flowers, amputated arms, compassion

teshik- tash uzbekistan

furthest east 700,000 ya, had fosilized coprolite

kebara cave

60,000 ya - most complete, hyoid bone

brokas and werniks areas

Fox P2 gene

Strong evidence of communitcation

moula geury, france


evidence of canadalism

the disposal of human bones was like a pile of animal bones

Spain, El Sidon

490,000 ya

family cave site

evidence of canabalism

neandertal tool tech

mousterian tool tech- discovered in La Moustier.

no composite tools, made a variety of tool from the small flakes. developed from levollois tech.

Neandertal diet and hunting

no long range hunting

they for sure hunted

500,000 ya copprolite fossil has plants

alot of N15 in collagen analysis so probably meat eaters mostly

La cotte de st. Brelade

site by joursey island where they stampeded animals off cliffs.

Vindija cave site, croatia

preformed isotope analysis and found n15 in collagen.

also did dna analysis and found relation to humans 1-4 %

this was done by Mr. Pable

he found fox p2 gene

ne. spoke genetically and physiologically

at least by 130,000 ya

Modern humans characteristics

small teeth

high cranial vault


had a chin!

lighter body structure

tropical climate

small super orbital torris

small face less projmathic

dates for modern human expansion

195,000ya in ethiopia

90,000 ya in israel

40,000ya ausy and europe

30,000 ya moving to americas

Jebel Irhoud, Morocco


intermediate between human and prehuman

only found in africa


premodern human discovered in denisova cave in russia.

-DNA from a finger found that its a group seperated from the humans

-must have interbread with human 5% in some areas in east asia and ausy

- used organic materials for tools like a harpoon

Omo, ethiopia

Omi1 and 2. omi 1 most like a modern human

herto ethiopia

160,000 ya modern human site

Border cave, South africa

70-80,000 ya skull of modern human found

klasies river mouth, south africa

70,000 ya modern human site

Skhul/Qafzeh israel

earliest modern humans out of africa

80-120,000 ya

possible interbreeding skull. A 60,000 ya one that came back from europe

Cro Magnon

30,000 ya site in europe

located in france

characteristics of upper paleolithic in europe

in africa this is called late stone age

it has lots of new tech and cultural behaviors

new tools and some techniques of upper paleolithic

indirect percussion-using a punch on a core

pressure flaking- using bones or antlers to break off small flakes with pressure

atatl- spear thrower

burin- chizzle like edge kind a general purpose tool

Elaborate upper paleolithic burials

- lots of grave goods and lots of pathological people

sungir site, russia

28,000 ya burial site

two people head to head

lots of beads and belts

a femor from another person with oacher

girl had pathological problems with legs

probably high status

Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic

- culture here very good at hunting mamoths

- 28,000 ya

- female had deformaties

- unique scapula

- triple burial in weird sexual possition

- venus of Dolni Vestonice was made of fired clay (earliest example)

- lots of red ochar

lake Mungo (willandra lakes)

40,000 ya burial site of modern humans in ausy

lots of red ochar

- one was burned 20,000ya (first one)

Ko Swamp

10,000 ya ausy site

weird skull

maybe inter bread with homoerrectus

big super orbital torrus

maybe had a board on the head (culture)

pleistocene megafauna extinction

during this the big herbivores became extinct. lots hunted or found in tar pits.


a fungus produced by herbavours that left austrailia and north america. Probably because those animals were wipped out.

Models for the peopling of north america

1. clovis first- 13,500-12,500. based on the apperance of a bifacial clovis point.

2. pre colovis: human predated 13,500

a number of site like mote verde, chile and meadowcroft rock shelter pensylvania

monte verde, chile

15,000 ya to soon to travel down the center of the continent so they probably took a coastal route


J. Adavasio found this. he is the man but no one believed him and then the monte verde site turned up.

He is a great field worker.

Hypothesis for peopling of america

1.bering land bridge (35,000 -11,000ya)

2. pacific coastal route(bc some artifact but not much evidence for this since it might be under water)

3. north atlantic ice edge( solutrian hypo) not much evidence for this. 5,000 year gap from where people went and there is no cave art in america. DNA shows no relation


called shovel shaped insisor (chinese tooth)

christy turnner found this similarity between asian and native americans

the anzick site

a clovis burial dating to 13,000 ya.

DNA evidence supports link between clovis people and asians.

-only confirmed clovis burial

- asians are 80% related to this boy

mamontovaya kurya, russia

40,000 ya stone tool found here. evidence of bering strait

Yana RHS, Siberia

32,000 ya Rhino site

- warmer site that people left and came back to 11,000 ya

asian site and evidence of bering strait

lake Baikal cave site

14,000 ya the stone tools here later end up in alaska

swan point, alaska

14,000 ya early north america site

bluefish caves, yukon

12,000 north american site

Debra L. Fredkin, texas

15,500 ya preclovis site in N.A.

Cactus hill, virginia

15,000 ya pre colvis NA

paisley 5 mile point cave, oregon

14,000 ya \copperlite found that had haplo group a (linking it to asia)

also preclovis

Flosom point

the bison killa

11,000 ya tech that follows clovis

-its from a paleo-indian culture

- fluted a lot higher than clovis

Kennewick man

9,300 ya skelaton

-most well known american fossil

-has caucasoid characteristic so it could be studied.

-discovered by two student

-looks like auinu of japan

- ate marrine animals

potected by the natives and got 16 days to check it out. now no one has it. NAGPRA protects it.

- so important because there are only 2 dozen past 9,000 ya in N. A.

Yacatan, Mexico

oldest N.A. skelaton at 13,600 ya


follows plestacene from 11,000 ya to present

- temp increase

-change in animal type

-animal extinction

-broad spectrum collecting (less big game)

Neolithic revolution

called this by Gordon Childe

Theories for why we started growing

oasis theory- climate change forced us to gather around water and start growing

marginal zone-good areas filled so others moved to marginal zones and grew what they used to eat

population growth- started farming when land wouldnt support people.

probably combo of all of them


analyzing the remains of ancient plants.

fossilized ones come from dry areas, really wet areas, charing them, or when they froze.


micrograins of male gametes (tells what species it is from) evidence of domestication


silica structures that are inorganic

they identify species and are diff in each plant

evidences of domestication

1. geography (plants started popping up)

2.mean seed size

3.seed morphology (rachis and seed coat)

4. osteological change ( smaller )

5.animal population characteristics ( young males and old females)

Ain mallaha, Israel

nutufian burial 12,000 ya

intentional burial of dog

(side note... all dogs come from wolfes)


collector type hunter who started a sedentary settlement patter in near east from 15,000-12,000 ya. They had small places for storage under their huts.


tiny crescent shaped stone tools that are classic natufian that were used as a cycle for farming

when did domestication begin in the near east?

8,000 ya and included

dogs, wheat, barley, chickpeas, lentils, sheep, goat, pig, camel.


9,000 ya largest complex settlement ( not a true city)

-no doors only roofs

-8,000-10,000 people egaliterian people

-same size rooms and graves

- dead burried under their bed after they decay

-paintings in most houses of humans and bulls

-heavy pottery in big city

-babies burried with special status

-lots of farming and some sheep and goats

-lots of statues ( women) but not much specializing

Jared diamond article

-nutritian went down due to lack of variety

wilson bands and harris lines

-lots of diseases because people live close

-actually spend more time on food.

-hunter gathers have food security unlike farmer

-lead to inequality of resources. not hunters

-now elite member are healthy

-lead to populaton growth and then wars

-more rigid land ownership (fights)

good: specialization, higher carrying capacity


cuture that predated the neolithic in northern europe. They are part of the mesolithic period

mesolithic period

period before the neolithic in europe

origins of agriculture in europe

balkan peninsula - 7000ya


central northern europe- 5000 ya

europe domesticates included

dog, cattle, goat, barley, rye, wheat

Linear Banderamik farming complex

-permanent settlement

-lots of pottery (has linear bands)

-large storage building for excess grain

-fences for farms

-some evidence of violence in germany 7000ya

mass grave site with 18 adults and 16 children killed by hit and arrows. killed by their own tools

where did the farmers in europe come from?

lots migrated from middle east.

animals and the people

south america domesticates

maize (intro from mexico), potatoes (100s of varieties, now they are all over world because of spanish), manioc, arrowroot, yams, quinoa, cotton, llama, alpaca, guinea pig.

Mesoamerica domestocates

maize (7,000 ya), means, squash, chili peppers, sunflowers, dog, not many animals except a duck and turkey.

they were very knowledgeable about how to grow beans and maize together. one takes n and beans add n to soil.

Eastern north america domesticates

dog, squash, sunflower, sumpweed, little barley, goosefoot, smartweed, knot weed, turkey, and maize (not till much later, only about 1000 ya)

stone henge

3,000-1600 ya used for 1500 years

3 phases of construction

1. earthworks 3000ya

2. wooden structure 2,900-2,400 (lots of post holes)

3. stone 2,600-1,600 ya a)blue stone


c)blue stones re done


came from 30km away at marlborough at stone henge


massive ones fitted using morise and tenon joints. at stone henge


east west feature at the stone henge that is 500 y older. probably boundry of sacred ground. all burials are south of this.

Durrington wall

site near stone henge

- it has a large neolithic settlement. 1000 houses, probably where the 4000 lived. Cattle from diverse areas meaning people came from a long ways away for religious cerimony at stone henge

the amesbury archer

burial 5km from stone henge

-richest burial! 100 diff artifacts

-potential son near him, had gold too

-found in 2002 on his left side

- first time metal found in britian and he had beaker pottery with him.

- was an imigrant, strontium in teeth says hes from alps region in germany.

- gold earing with him. First time in brittian.

-he had a limp and tooth infection


complex site in illinois flourished 1000-1250 AD

13 km2 site called them the mississipians.

-monks mound (largest platform in N.A. 30m and16 acers)

-mound 72- a elite burial 12,000 shells with him in shape of a bird found from gulf 12,00 km away. 53 women sacrificed with him.

leave? (over hunt, no trees left, no defence)


big wooden walls surrounding the cahokia site.