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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

clovis people

first known immigrants to the Americas who crossed over the Bering Land Bridge


developed Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde

Chaco Canyon

city built of logs and adobe with a lot of apartment buildings built by the Anasazi

Mesa Verde

Anasazi city with cliff dwellings


mound builder people who used agriculture to sustain a large society

Southwest Indians (Pueblo)

used lots of canals, dams, and terracing to allow agriculture in a dry climate

Pacific Coast (Shasta/Chinooks)

made fishing canoes, woven baskets that could hold water, and fished for salmon which they ate all year

Great Basin and Great Plains Indians

lived off buffalo and hunted them by forcing them to fall off a cliff

horse changed their lives dramatically

Atlantic Coast Indians (Iroquois)

5 nations with women leaders who shared the land and lived in longhouses that would house many families


founded Tenochtitlan in the middle of Lake Texacoco (northern Mexico)


on the Yucatan peninsula

only Americans with a written language


Pacific coast of south america

Machu Picchu and Cuzco

Columbian Exchange

transatlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases after first European contact with Americas

how did horse affect American culture after Columbian exchange?

helped hunt in the Great Plains as well as become a tool for warfare

how did the potato affect Europe?

staple food in Ireland because it was easy to grow and cheap

how did the Columbian exchange affect Africans

sugar cane found in the Caribbean

Spain wanted to get slaves to expand sugar cane plantations

Portugal opened up the slave trade

Hernan Cortes

conquered the Aztecs and Montezuma after believing that they submitted to Spain with their warm welcome;

established New Spain

Bartolome de Las Casas

religious guy who protested against the oppression of Indians and Encomienda system through writing;

originally was given an encomienda but renounced it

Encomienda system

large ranches worked by Indian slaves that offered protection from enemy tribes as well as Christian conversion in exchange for labor

Ponce de Leon

Spanish explorer who came to Florida looking for the "fountain of youth"

Cabeza de Vaca

explorer who went on an expedition that got blown over into Texas and had to rely on support of Indians to survive, learning about their culture as he went to Mexico city

Don Juan de Onate

appointed governor of New Mexico who was told to attract the natives peacefully, but ended up disobeying orders after being attacked by an Acoma Pueblo leader and killed a lot of Indians

how did Don Juan de Onate organize New Mexico?

separated it into multiple districts with a priest in each district to attempt to convert Indians to Christianity


system in which nobles were given land by the government in exchange for military service, while peasants lived on the land and worked it in exchange for military protection