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15 Cards in this Set

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George Kennan/Containment doctrine 1947
George Kennan was a young diplomat and Soviet specialist that came up with the theory that Russia whether tsarist or communist, was relentlessly expansionary. But the Kremlin was cautious Kennan argued that the flow of soviet power could be stopped if contained. Hence the containment doctrine.
Benjamin Spock 1945
Family became an important value in the 1940s and Dr. Benjamin Spock's book "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care" resembled that value. This book instructed millions of parents during the ensuing decades in the kind of homely wisdom that was once transmitted naturally from grandparent to parent, and from parent to child.
Julius + Ethel Rosenberg
The stunning success of Soviet Scientists in building the atomic bomb was mainly due to spies. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were sending atomic data to Moscow and were convicted in 1951 of espionage and executed in 1953. The only people ever executed for espionage during peacetime. Their trial and death combined with sympathy for their now orphaned children began to sober citizens on the excesses of the red-hunters.
Yalta Conference 1945
The final fateful conference of the big 3. Final plans were made on how to destroy the German lines and assign occupation zones for Germany. Also creating new boundaries for countries like Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania which would be later broken by Soviet Russia. Also Stalin agreed to invade Japan three months after the collapse of Germany only if he could get south of the Sakhalin Island, Kurile Islands, and joint control over China's manchuria railroad and special seaports of that area.
Truman Doctrine 1947
in inspiration from the Containment doctrine, Truman created the Truman doctrine which would pay financial assistance to any country fighting communism. This was mainly meant for Greece and Turkey which Truman sent $ 400 million dollars to help aid them.
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region. The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances:
Member countries of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact, with the Soviet Union as the leading country.
The European Community members and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization members and associated countries with the United States as the leading country.
Physically, the Iron Curtain took the shape of border defences between the countries of Europe in the middle of the continent. The most notable border was marked by the Berlin Wall, which served as a symbol of the Curtain as a whole.
Marshall Plan
Western Europe's economy was struggling badly. To help, Truman and Sec. of State George C. Marshall started the Marshall Plan, a massive project to lend financial help to rebuild Europe.
The plan helped in the formation of the European Community (EC).
Some $12.5 billion was spent over four years, a huge sum. Congress thought the number too high (they'd already given $2 billion to U.N. agencies), but a Russia-sponsored revolution in Czechoslovakia changed their minds.
The Marshall Plan worked. Western Europe's economies rebounded, and communist groups in those nations lost influence.
White Flight
was the movement of middle class caucasian americans to the suburbs leaving the impoverished minorities, blacks especially, in the inner cities. This caused continued segregation in America.
NATO 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, it pledged to regard an attack on one of the original twelve signatories as an attack on all. It was a huge shift in America's foreign policy as they were now entering an entangling alliance. It was also key in European unification and militarization of the Cold War.
Taft-Hartley Act 1947
Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act. It banned "closed shops" (closed to anyone not joining the union). It also made unions liable for certain damages and that union leaders take a non-communist oath. Opposite of the Wagner Act of the New Deal, Taft-Hartley weakened labor unions.
Joseph McCarthy
Sen. Joseph McCarthy wanted to show himself a red hunter too. He threw around wild accusations with little or no basis to them. He lead the search for communists in Washington, conservative politicians at the state and local levels discovered that all manner of real or perceived social changes including declining, religious sentiment, increased sexual freedom, an agitation for civil rights could be tarred with a red brush.
HUAC 1948
Founded in 1938, the House Un-American Activities Committee was created to investigate "subversion". In 1948 committee member Richard M. Nixon an ambitious red-catcher led the chase after Alger Hiss, a prominent ex-New Dealer and a distinguished member of the "eastern establishment". Hiss demanded the right to defend himself in front of the HUAC. Hiss lost and was sent to prison for five years for perjury.
McCarren Act 1950
Or the McCarran Internal Security Bill, it allowed the president to arrest and detain suspicious people during an "internal security emergency" Critics protested that the bill smacked of police state concentration camp tactics shouldn't be passed. Truman vetoed the bill but the Republican congress enacted the bill.
Fair Deal 1949
After his victory over Dewey Truman outlined a "Fair Deal" program. It called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs and an extension of Social Security. However most of his plans lost due to the congressional opposition from Republicans and souther Democrats. The major successes were raising minimum wage, providing for public housing in the Housing Act of 1949, and extending old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries in the Social Security Act of 1950.
NSC-68 1950
National Security Council Memorandum Number 68 recommended that the United States quadruple its defense spending. Seemingly impossible at first, the Korean crisis revived the idea. This marks a major step in American Militarization in the cold war because Truman ordered that 3.5 million men be under arms and $50 million dollars per year spent on defense budget. It also reflected the limitless possibility that pervaded postwar American society. Also, NSC-68 created the assumption that the American economy could bear without strain the huge costs of gigantic rearmament program.