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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
frances willard- 1880s, Woman’s Christian Temperance Union that helped create a Prohibition and home protection party in the 1880s- example of women participating in politics even though they couldn’t vote.
• Grand Army of the Republic
social and political lobbying organization of northern civil war vets that reminded voters that republicans had led the nation during the civil war. "waved the bloody shirt"
• Jim Pendergast
former saloonkeeper, democrat turned out the vote by taking care of constituents, handing out jobs and financing campaigns with money from city employees- chieftain.
• Rutherford B. Hayes
He restored respect for the presidential office after Grant. He was dignified and proper and had a wife who was equally respected. The family barely drank.
-civil war general wounded in action honest gov of Ohio
• Greenback Party
in favor of money backed by nothing--

Greenbacks were paper notes distributed during the civil war. The greenback party 1877 wanted to expand the money supply and health and safety reulations for the workplace and other things that would benefits workers and farmers. They won 14 seats in congress but faded soon after.
• Sherman Silver Purchase Act
agreement that the treasure would buy a certain amount of silver each year and an equal amount of notes exchangeable for silver or gold 1890-93
• Stalwarts vs. Half-Breeds
stalwarts wanted to maintain the government how it was, half breeds wanted civil service reform
• Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883-- in order to prevent spoils system appointed people had to pass a test- established standards of merit.
• Mugwumps
republican reformers who joined clevelands side
• Pork-barrel projects
pointless projects funded w/ government money
• McKinley Tariff of 1890
brought taxes to an all time high REPUBLICAN
• The Grange
1870s offering info and emotional support to farmers as well as the latest info on farming. Also had social gatherings.
Oliver Kelley
Leader of the grange movement-- patrons of husbandry- department of agriculture clerk
Granger laws
fixed max prices for shipping-- helped farmers
• Munn v. Illinois
1877- rejected the appeal to declare granger laws unconstitutional and set a maximum rate for storing grain.
• Wabash v. Illinois
1886- states didn't have the right to control interstate railroad rates
• Farmer’s Alliance
The Alliance was similar to the Grange because it advocated farmers’ cooperates and made farmers feel less isolated in their troubles. It began due to the droughts in the Great Plains, and the southern farmers locked in debt by the crop lien system. It was able to unite several areas and elevate strong leaders who formed other alliances, as well as put some alliance leaders in office. This started a fierce political campaign
, Charles Macune
-- self trained lawyerand physician assumed leadership of the alliance in 1887 and helped it spread eastward across lower south
• Tom Watson
urged the alliances to come together in the south despite racial differences, became congressman
• Mary E. Lease
was a female orator for the Alliance who urged Kansas to raise hell, and
• National Woman’s Alliance
1891 founded by veterans of other causes had a powerful voice
• Populist Party? who was its leader?
the Populist Party was the party started by alliance members that supported their goals.Watson populist party presidential nominee.
• Populist platform
increased government action on behalf of the farmers, tariff reduction, graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, federal funding for irrigation research, free and unlimited coinage of silver ⇐those were all proposed by the farmers alliance. The populist party took those points and added → the direct election of senators, other local election reforms that’s gave more power to the people (initiatives, referendums, and recalls).
• Convict-lease/labor system
white people hired out blacks that were in jails to work under slave labor conditions in places like mines or cotton fields. It reinforced the racial segregation apparent in the south and played a major role in strengthening the economy especially because free laborers were afraid to strike because they knew their bosses could just get convict laborers. Many died under this system and it continued until it became unprofitable in the early twentieth century.
• Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) said segregation was constitutional by upholding a LA law that required segregated railroad cars. Said this was fine as long as they were equal. Effected minorities all over. Started “separate but equal” and could be compared to 1954 Brown v. board.
• Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery
believed blacks had to prove themselves-- Washington thought that blacks must acquire skills to prove their economic value before they earn equality. Up from slaver 1901 was his autobiography that showed how honesty, hard work, and kindly patrons leads to success
• “Solid South”
south based on racism that created a single party system and made victory for a national candidate impossible if they did not appeal to Democrats.
• Panic of 1893 -- causes?
• The Panic was first caused by a bankruptcy in the railroad industry that followed the boom of the 1880s. This affected the related industries of iron and steal and caused the failure of several largerailroads. Te confidence in the gold standard was weakened already after the US gold reserve had been drained by London. Government resources were drained from high tariffs and pork barrel appropriations and the Sherman Anti- Silver act further strained the gold because the treasury certificates were redeemable in either silver or gold. Also, the election of Grover Cleveland lowered confidence in the gold standard because his party favored inflation. Stock prices plunged and the reserves sank causing 74 railroad and 15 thousand other institutions including 600 banks to fail. The four year depression that followed exhibited the failure of many companies, huge unemployment, starvation, a slump in crop prices, and protests.

causes: depression, pullman strike, coxeys army
• Coxey’s Army
wanted a 5 million dollar stimulus and to be off the gold standard-- protested with a march but arrested and seen as eccentric
• Wilson Gorman Tariff
lowered duties a little but made many concessions to protectionist interests and Cleveland did not sign it. Became a law that had an income text of 2 percent on income over 4000. -- 1894
• Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan and Trust Co.
(1895) said this tariff was unconstitutional because it was a direct tax on personal property that wasn’t apportioned to state. This reinforced the governments tendency to favor the wealthy.
• Election of 1896- significance
politicians were dealing with a lot of change- parties up to this point had been switching back and forth which shows that there wasn’t a lot of separation in their platforms. There was a high voter turnout due to money issues (gold vs. silver) and the issue of civil service reform. The democrats were generally Catholics, immigrants, but the bi- metal system did not resonate well enough. People voted based on family tradition, ethics, religion, and urban/industrial issues.
election of 1896 candidates/ parties
democrat- William Jennings Bryan wanted silver but had little appeal to factory workers, the urban middle class, and the family famers of the midwest.
Mckinley was he republican and won by a considerable margin.
who did americans look to for social problem
state and local authorities rather than washington because they believed in laissez faire
what was party loyalty based on?
geography, ethnicity, religion
money conflict?
debtors, like southern and western farmers wanted more money. business leaders thought that strictly limited money was more stable
1885 election
democrat president- grover clevelant00 calle dcuts in tariff and stopped fake veterans' pension claims
1889 election
benjamin harrison- republican higher tariff and generous pensions
how did cleveland deal with the depression?
Cleveland thought that laissez- faire was the way to go because the cycle of economic panic was inevitable. He wanted to defend the gold standard so he blamed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and got it repealed in 93. To stop the gold drain Cleveland got loans from big Wall Street guys in exchange for discounted us bonds. This sealed the deal about the relationship between the government and Wall Street.
• Why is the Election of 1896 considered a WATERSHED election?
McKinley defeated Bryan not by being popular, but by building a campaign around pamphlets and posters instead of the candidate (he didn’t really get off his porch). This began a republican majority that dominated until FDR. The populist party was not dead and the democrats were back to a southern party. It created a sound gold dollar.