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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
British col. shielded by French [at first] by _____
the Appalachians
Heading northward the Mississippi R. becomes the ____
St. Lawrence R. [transports from Canada to Gulf of Mexico]
Order of Euro strength pre-"world wars"
Spain, France, Britain
in CA until 1840s
Reasons for French Exploration
need $ for foreign + civil wars [Catholics vs. Protestants]
St. Bartholomew's Day [massacre]
1572 - 10,000 Huguenots killed by Catholics
_____, _______, and ________ were late to the New World
England, Holland, France
Edict of Nantes
1598 [NEW ERA] for toleration of protestants by Henry V/the Navigator
- only way for France to explore Europe + New World
FR Indian ally
Huron Indians
Iroquois hate ____ b/c ____
the French; b/c a "lightening stick" killed some of them on accident
Natives w/most control over Ohio Valley
Huguenots went ____ in the Americas
British colonies, Catholic French didn't want them --- low pop. in New France thus
Kind of men to FR New World
young, uncommitted, freespirited men - not family men
Reasons why FR lost French-Indian War
1.) side w/wrong group [Hurons<Iroquois]
2.) low population
New France Resource
Beaver [fur for fashionable + warm hats in Europe]
_____ & ____ decimated Indian pop.
alcohol/"firewater", disease
not successful in converting natives - served well as explorers + documenting the land
La Salle
sails the Mississippi R. and claims Louisiana for FR
& to protect land, built forts alng the MI R. + Gulf
New France grew & exported
New France
autocratic [no jury or rep. assembly], Catholic, slowly populating b/c no economic reason to leave France
Louis XIV
[1643-1715] throne @ 5 yrs., interest in New France colonies, "sun king",
Fr est. Quebec on St. Lawrence R. - led by Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
"Father of New France", est. Quebec, friendly w/Hurons
Antoine Cadillac
to stop ENG from going to Ohio Valley, est. Detroit ["the city of straits"] in 1701
"the city of straits", FR in 1701 est. by Cadillac
New Orleans
FR port on the Gulf to block SP
the garden of New France
mouth of Mississippi R.
4 world wars in Europe
1st 2 World Wars
King Williams's War [1689-97] & Queen Anne's War [1702-13] - British col. vs. French col. w/Indian allies
Reasons: control of land, trade + expansion
- reg. armies not used
-guerilla warfare!!!!
SP allies w/___
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ENG given FR Acadia [=New Scotland/Novia Scotia + Hudson Bay + St. Lawrence]
then ENG salutory neglect of colonies & ENG won limited trading w/SP America
Novia Scotia Resource
Capt. Jenkins
ENG captain, ear cut off by SP _ told to give it to his king
The War of Jenkins' Ear
1739 - ENG vs. SP in Caribbean + GA [w/Oglethorpe]
aka King George's War [in USA]
+ merged w/Austrian War of Succession [large scale]
- FR allied w/SP & ENG took Louisbourg, Cape Breton Isle
Peace Treaty of 1748
Louisbourg back to FR - NE outraged b/c no respect from old world diplos, ended War of Jenkins' Ear/King George's War
Ohio Valley
crucial to move W. [FR vs. ENG]
ENG Virginians get "legal rights" to 50,000 acres in Ohio V. --- while FR making OH ports e..g Fort Duquesne
In ____ G. Washington sent + fired at _____
1754; Fort Duquesne
Fort Necessity
quickly made by Washington, surrendered July 4, 1954 [oh, the irony]
Acadians that ENG forced to LA in 1755 [FR speaking Catholics]
1st 3 Anglo-FR colonial wars began in
French and Indian War / Seven Years' War
est. in America,
Started by Ft. Necessity
ENG + Prussia vs. SP, FR, Austria + Russia [Euro]
FR lost so many in Europe, couldn't put effort in America
Frederick the Great
repelled w/ 1/3 troops of enemy, Prussian
1754 Albany, NY
ENG assembly w/ representatives from 7 colonies, to keep Iroquois loyal [gave them guns,],
Long term plans = greater unity + defense vs. FR
-Led by B. Franks
Ben Franklin's suggestion
suggested home rule - but colonists couldn't decide on details
General Braddock
aka "Bulldog" [60 yrs. old] 1755 sent to seize Ft. Duquesne w/mostly "buckskins"/bad militiamen --- small amt. of FR + Indians beat the ENG!!!
1756 ENG invaded Canada - problem =
can't focus
William Pitt
"the Great Commoner",ENG PM, [1708-78], Fort Duquesne = Pittsburgh after the war, orator,
1757 led London Govt. ["organizer of Victory"] to concentrate w/young gens. on defeating FR Canada
1st ENG victory in French and Indian War
1758 vs. Louisbourg
James Wolfe
sent to Quebec, FR defeated b/c ENG hid on a cliff
Decisive point in French and Indian War
Battle at Quebec
Montreal falls + last FR flag in Canada
Treaty of Paris [1763]
after French and Indian War
- no FR in N. America --- left fertile population
-kept several small W. Indies sugar isles & 2 islets in Gulf of St. Lawrence [never to be fortified]
- bad for Indians b/c can't make Euros fight ea. other
Sp given ____ from ____ for French and Indian Ware
LA [trans MI R.] + New Orleans ; France
SP gave ENG ___ for ____
FL; Cuba
ENG emerges from French and Indian War as the
strongest naval power [but w/shattered "British invincibility]
INtercolonial disunity b/c
1. enormous distance
2. geographical barriers
3. conflicting religions
4. varied nationalities
5. governments
6. boundary disputes
7. backcountry vs. bigwigs
Ottawa chief in 1763 found ENG sleeping in OHio V. + killed all but 3 W. Appalachian posts
----given smallpox blankets
Proclamation of 1763
London govt. prohibiting settlement beyond Appalachians - to fix Indian problem ---> angry colonists
Le Grand Derangement/"the Great Displacement"
1755 Acadians led to LA onto bayous w/sugar cane, sweet pot, Roman Catholicism Cajuns
1840s flight from Quebec b/c
lean harvest, short grow season, scarcity of land
---> FR worked NE lumber yards, textile mills, settled in N. woods
French and Indian/7 Years' War fought in...
Americas, Europe, W. Indies, Philippines, Africa, + Ocean
1758 French and Indian War changes tone
becomes less about expansion and more about ENG defense vs. FR