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54 Cards in this Set

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William James help establish which field of psychology?


Sigmund Freud is most related to

Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic prospective

BF Skinner and operant conditioning are related to which perspective of modern psychology?

Behavioral perspective / behavioralist

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

Valued self-directed spirit and emphasize social needs, in their humanistic perspective.

What is the bystander effect?

When people see something bad but don't react to it like they normally would if they were alone. This usually happens in crowds.

Jane Goodall's research with chimps and gorillas can be described as

Naturalistic observation

What are the benefits and disadvantages of surveys?

People sometimes report inaccurate information. You could get lots of information in a relatively quick amount of time

What are some basic principles of ethics in experiments within the field of psychology?

No harm should be done to all participants. Subjects must provide clear inform consent. Deception must be explain in the end. All private information is kept confidential. Animal cases are presented to an ethics committee before being done

What is the central nervous system and what is its function?

It is the largest part of the nervous system including the brain and spine. Relays messages from sensory neurons to the spine then to the brain

What are the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system?

Somatic system and autonomic nervous system. Somatic deals with voluntary muscle movements while autonomic nervous system deals with heart, lungs, digestion, and internal organs

Autonomic nervous system is made of which two subdivisions?

The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic nervous system the body in stressful situations while parasympathetic returns the body to normal resting rate.

The process by which physical sensations are converted into neural messages consecutively to be sent to the brain for perception is known as?


Give an example of sensory habituation

You put on the shoes can you feel the shoes that moment but by the end of the day you don't feel them anymore.

what is Weber's law?

It states that you can notice a just noticeable difference between two stimuli and that difference is proportional to the magnitude of the stimuli.

Example of Weber's law in effect

You put the car volume really high you drive like that for a couple minutes. You get out the car and when you return you turn on the radio and it sounds loud as ****. You didn't realize how loud the radio was

Describe the process of vision in four basic steps.

Gathering light, within the human eye processing, transduction, brain processing

Cones are to_______ vision, as roads are to _____ vision.

Color ; black and white

Sound waves have two distinct features which are:

Amplitude and frequency

Cochlear implants our treatment for the common sensory disorder of

A loss of balance

What is stroboscopic movement?

The fast movement of briefly flashed images in an animated motion picture.

Stereotypes are similar to

Perceptual sets


Statistical measure of relationship

Atkinson and shifrin's information processing model of memory focuses on

The way information is processed in three different stages of memory

The three stages of memory of the information processing model are

Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Example of sensory memory

All you see in see in an instant. All the noise you hear in one moment before it is all processed

According to the information-processing model, information passes through the _______ , registering the _____ memory, which then filters info into ________ memory.

Sensory system, sensory information, short term memory.

How does the Levels-of-Processing model explain memory?

It puts an emphasis on meaning. The more messing it has the more you retain it, because of the deeper level of processing.

Example of how the Levels-of-Processing Model works

Deeper the understanding, the more easily retained.

What is encoding?

It is the process of breaking down information into a form we can understand. This helps out be more easily stored in the brain

A flashbulb memory of an emotional event would typically be stored in _______ memory

Long term


Conscious repetition in order to encode long term memory

Spacing effect

What you should have done. Rehearsing memory over a long time.

After hearing a puppy bark for a split second, he has a vivid memory of the puppys bark, also known as _________ memory.

Echoic memory

Remember that vision and hearing have their own separate categories of memories that occur in an instant

The key is that your _______ memory functions when you hear your name in a crowd; the active process that allows you to respond is _______ memory.

Short term, working

Key charavteristic s of stm

Stm capacity is limited, seven items -+2

Stm holds information briefly for about 30-60 seconds if not attended to.

An example of Semantic memory would be

Knowledge of facts. Like knowing state capitals and the names of the great lakes

Declarative memories consist of ________ memory and _______ memory.

Semantic and episodic

The limbic system plays a key role in determining

Biological motivations like sex, hunger, fear

What neurotransmitters are affected by the consumption of alcohol?

It supresses glutamate and increased GABA and dopamine.

Temporal lobe helps process information from the _______ sense.


The best way to move information from short term to long term is by

Adding meaning to it and elaborating

Explicit and declarative memory is processed in the


Non-declarative and procedural memories are called

Implicit memories. This includes procedural and conditioned memories

Give examples of implicit memories

Ex. How to tie shoe, conditioned emotional reactions, playing a piece of music

Multiple choice test are to the ______ process of retrieval, as long response questions are to the _____ process of retrieval.

Recognition and recall

What part of the brain is most related to control fine motor movement?

The cerebellum

Axis 1 of the DSM-IV-TR regards

Clinical disorders such as academic or social problems

Axis 2 regards

Personality disorder and mental retardation

Axis 3 is about _________

General medical conditions

Axis 4 is about

Psychosocial and environmental problems. Problems in the physical surrounding of the prison that may have an impact of diagnosis , treatment and outcome

Axis 5 is a _______________

Global assessment of functioning

Describe the 5 axes in the DSM-IV-VR and what they relate to

Axis 1: clinical disorders

Axis 2: personality disorders and mental retardation

Axis 3: general medical conditions (chronic and acute illnesses that may impact health)

Axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems(issues with the physical surroundings)

Axis 5: Global assessment of functioning (overall judgement of current functioning)

Edward Thorndike

Proposed the law of effect

The law of effect

States that reinforcement is more effective at forming behaviors than punishment