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150 Cards in this Set

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Kidney

Bean shaped organ


12 cm long by 6 cm wide, covered by a capsule


Lie retroperitoneally, encased in fat


Left kidney 1-2 cm superior to the right


Superior borders at T12, end at L3

Renal Pelvis

Formed by the expanded superior end of the ureter


Funnel-shaped sac


Located inside the renal sinus



-cavity in a kidney that channels urine to the ureter

Renal Medulla

Inner part of kidney

Renal Cortex

Outer part of kidney

Renal Capsule

Fibrous membrane that surrounds the cortex and helps maintain the shape of the kidney

Renal Columns

Tissue in the medulla between the renal pyramids

Renal Pyramids

Conical masses of tissue that make up the renal medulla

Nephron

Functional unit of a kidney, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule

Functions of Kidneys

-Regulate volume, composition and pH of body fluids (balances blood plasma)


-removes metabolic waste from blood


-secrete erythropoietin


-secrete renin


-regulate Ca++ absorption by activating vitamin D (in the presence of PTH)

Erythropoietin

Red blood cell formation

Renin

Regulates blood pressure


Released if blood pressure decreases or Na ions in blood decrease


Increases blood pressure

Renal Arteries

Arise from the abdominal aorta


Transport a large volume of blood to the kidneys


15 to 30 percent of total cardiac output (blood)

Interlobar Arteries

Branches of the renal Artery that pass between the renal pyramids

Arcuate Arteries

Incomplete arches that are branches of the interlobar arteries

Interlobular Arteries

Cortical Radiate Arteries


Branches of arcuate arteries

Afferent Arterioles

Branches of interlobular arteries


Lead to the nephrons

Arteries

Abdominal Aorta


Renal Arteries


Interlobar Arteries


Arcuate Arteries


Interlobular Arteries


Afferent Arterioles


Nephron

Renal Corpuscle

Consists of glomerulus and glomerular capsule

Glomerulus

Tangled cluster of blood capillaries

Glomerular Capsule

Bowman's Capsule


Thin-walled, saclike structure

Renal Tubule

Part of a nephron that extends from the renal corpuscle to the collecting duct

Podocytes

Highly modified epithelial cells of the visceral layer

Nephron Loop

Hoop of Henle

Structure of Nephron

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (coiled portion of renal tunule)


Nephron Loop


-descending limb


-ascending limb


Distal Convoluted Tubule


Collecting Duct

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Contact between distal convoluted tubule and afferent arteriole



Group of cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole in the kidney that pays a role in the control of renin secretion

Macula Densa

Structure of epithelial cells of the ascending limb of the juxtaglomerular apparatus


Tall and densely packed

Juxtaglomerular Cells

Smooth muscle cells of arterioles


Regulates secretion of renin

Cortical Nephron

Nephron with a corpuscle in the renal cortex


80% of nephrons

Juxatamedullary Nephron

Nephron with its corpuscle near the renal medulla


20% of nephrons


Dip into medulla


Regulate water balance

Vasa Recta

Branch of the peritubular capillary that receives blood from the efferent arterioles of juxatamedullary nephrons

Glomerular Filtration

Begining of urine formation


Glomerular capillaries filter plasma



Substances move from blood to glomerular capsule

Tubular Reabsorption

Substances move from renal tubules into blood of peritubular capillaries


Glucose, water, urea, proteins, creatine



Returns substances to capillaries


Controlled by tubular epithelium


Active and passive transport

Tubular Secretion

Substances move from blood of peritubular capillaries into renal tubules


Drugs and ions



Substances move from capillaries into tubules


Excreted as urine


Active and passive transport

Fenestrae

Small opening in the capillary endothelium into capsule that glomerular filtration passes through


Water, nutrients, ions

Net Filtration Pressure

Force favoring filtration (glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure)


MINUS


Forces opposing filtration (capsular hydrostatic pressure and glomerular capillary osmotic pressure)

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Directly proportional to the net filtration pressure


Mainly due to hydrostatic pressure


Average amounts over a 4 hour period (180 liters) vs urine production (.6 -2.5 liters)

Autoregulation

Controls glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under normal circumstances


Keeps it constant

Aldosterone

Hormone that causes K+ or H+ to be secreted while Na+ is reabsorbed


In distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts

Angiotensin

Liver creates Angiotensinogen


Renin from kidney turns it into Angiotensin I


Angiotensin-converting enzyme from lung capillaries turns it into Angiotensin II



Vasoconstriction


Increase Aldosterone & ADH


Increased thirst

Urea

Product of amino acid catabolism in the liver



Plasma concentration reflects the amount of protein in diet


Enters renal tubules through glomerular filtration


80% reabsorbed (the rest is excreted))

ADH

From pituitary gland


DC and collecting duct become permeable to water


Water is reabsorbed by osmosis into hypertonic medullary


Urine becomes concentrated, volume decreases

Uric Acid

Product of nucleic acid metabolism (DNA & RNA)



enters renal tubules through glomerular filtration


100% reabsorbed


10% secreted then excreted


Urine Composition

95% water


Uric Acid


Amino Acids


Electrolytes



Normal pH 4.6-8.0

Elimination of Urine

Nephrons


Collecting Ducts


Renal Papillae


Minor Calyx


Major Calyx


Ureters


Urinary Bladder


Urethra

Ureters

Muscular tube that carries urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder



Extend downward posterior to the parietal peritoneum


Join urinary bladder from below

Urinary Bladders

Muscular organ


Composed of transitional epithelium

Detrusor Muscle

Muscular wall of the urinary bladder

Prostate Gland

Gland surrounding the male urethra below the urinary bladder that secretes into semen prior to ejaculation

Internal Urethral Sphincter

Involuntary


Smooth muscle

External Urethral Sphincter

Voluntary


Skeletal muscle

Male Urethra

Prostatic


Membranous


Penile

Micturition

Process of voiding urine


-Bladder distends and stretch receptors stimulated


-Micturition center activated in sacral portion of spinal cord


-Parasympathetic nerve impulses cause detrusor muscle to contract


-need to urinate is sensed


-voluntary contraction of external urethral sphincter prevents urination


-conscious control of micturition by brainstem and cerebral cortex inhibits the micturition reflex


-when decision is made to urinate, external urethral sphincter relaxes, detrusor muscle contracts, and urine is expelled


Intracellular

Inside cells



More K+ and phosphate ions (PO4-3)

Extracellular

Outside cell


Interstitial and plasma



More Na+, Cl-, and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

Transcellular

Includes cerebrospinal fluid of the central nervous system, aqueous and vitreous humors of the eyes, Synovial fluid of the joints, serous fluid in the body cavities, and fluid secretions of the exorcine glands

Osmorecptors

Stimulated by increase in osmotic pressure as the body loses water


Located in the thirst center

Acids

Electrolytes that ionize on water and release hydrogen ions

Bases

Substances that combine with hydrogen ions

Acid-Base Balance

Regulation of hydrogen ions in body fluids

Acid-Base Buffer

Bicarbonate, Phosphate, Protein


Take up hydrogen ions and stabilize pH


Fast but temporary

Respiratory Mechanism

Excretion of carbon dioxide (within minutes)


Eliminates hydrogen ions

Renal Mechanism

Excretion of hydrogen ions (1-3 days)


Eliminates hydrogen ions from system

Retroperitoneal

Behind the peritoneum

Meiosis I

Seperates replicated homologous chromosome pairs

Chromosomes

Rod like structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell's nucleus during mitosis

Chromatids

One longitudinal half of a replicated chromosome

Meiosis II

Similar to mitosis

Diploid

Two sets of chromosomes


46

Haploid

One set of chromosomes


23

Sperm

Male sex cells


Gametes

Oocytes

Female sex cells


Egg Cells

Crossing Over

Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis



Traits mixed by exchanging parts of the chromatids

Gonads

Primary sex organs


Testes and ovaries

Septa

Divides the testes into lobules

Seminiferous Tubules

Tubule within the testes where sperm cells form

Interstitial Cells

Produce androgen


Hormone secreting cell between the seminiferous tubules of the testes

Androgen

Male sex hormone such as testosterone

Spermatogenesis

Sperm cell production

Spermatogonium

Undifferentiated spermatogenic cell in the outer part of a seminiferous tubule

Primary Spermatocyte

Produced from mitosis

Secondary Spermatocyte

Produced from meiosis I

Spermatids

Produced from meiosis II

Acrosome

Protective covering of sperm cell


Forms head of sperm cell with nucleus

Midpiece

Middle section of the sperm cell between the head and tail


Contains mitochondria

Tail

Flagellum


End of sperm cell


Used to move cell

Epididymis

Highly coiled tubule that leads from the seminiferous tubules of the testis to the ductus deferens



Outside testes


Storage site for sperm


Promotes maturation of sperm cells


Secrete glycogen

Vas Deferens

Ductus Deferens


Muscular tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra of the male reproductive tract


Ends in ampulla

Seminal Vesicles

One of a pair of pouches that adds fructose and prostaglandins to sperm as semen forms


Secretes alkaline fluid


Empties into ejaculatory duct

Ejaculatory Ducts

Tube, formed by the joining of the ductus deferens and the tube from the seminal vesicle, that transports sperm to the urethra

Bulbourethral Gland

Gland that secretes a viscous fluid into the male urethra during sexual excitement


Cowper's Gland


Inferior to the prostate gland

Ampulla

Expansion at the end of each semicircular canal that houses a crista ampullaris

Spermatic Cord

Structure consisting of blood vessels, nerves, the ductus deferens, and other vessels extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis

Prostaglandins

Group of compounds that have powerful, hormonelike effects

Semen

Fluid ejected during ejaculation


-5% sperm cells


-secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands


-prostaglandins


-fructose


Slightly alkaline (pH 7.5)

Ejaculation

Movement of semen out of urethra

Emission

Movement of semen into the urethra


(Sympathetic Impulses to smooth muscles of glands and ducts)

Scrotum

Pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue

Dartos Muscle

Smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue


Contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum

Penis

Male external reproductive organ through which the urethra passes

Glans Penis

Enlarged mass of corpus spongiosum at the end of the penis

Prepuce

Foreskin of the penis that surrounds the glans penis

Erection

During stimulation, parasympathetic nerve impulses from sacral cord release nitric oxide which dilated arteries leading to penis



Blood accumulates in erectile tissues and erection occurs


Veins are compressed

Orgasm

Culmination of sexual stimulation


Accompanied by emission and ejaculation

LH (ICSH)

Acts on interstitial cells (androgens)



Produced by pituitary gland

FSH

Initiates spermatogenesis



Produced by pituitary gland

Testosterone

Male sex hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes


Stimulates embryonic development of reproductive organs


Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics

Ovaries

Primary sex organs of females


Egg cell-producing organ

Broad Ligament

Largest ligament attached to tubes and uterus

Oogenesis

Differentiation of an egg cell


Egg formation

Follicular Cells

Ovarian cells that surround a developing egg cell and secrete female sex hormone

Polar Body

Small, nonfunctional cell that is product of meiosis in the female

Primordial Follicle

Egg enclosed by a single layer of cells in the ovary

Zygote

Cell produced by the fusion of an egg and sperm


Fertilized egg cell

Ovulation

Release of an egg cell for a mature ovarian follicle

Uterine Tubes

Oviducts, fallopian tubes


Tube that extends from the uterus on each side toward an ovary and transport sex cells


Place of fertilization


Lined by simple columnar epithelium, cilia, mucous

Uterus

Hollow muscular organ in the pelvis of a female where a fetus develops

Vagina

Tubular organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule of the female reproductive tract


Surrounds cervix


Receives penis during intercourse


Birth canal for offspring

Fertilization

Union of an egg cell and and a sperm cell

Endometrium of Uterine Wall

Columnar epithelium

Myometrium of Uterine Wall

Longitudinal, circular, spiral smooth muscle

Perimetrium of Uterine Wall

Serosa

Clitoris

Small erectile organ in the anterior vulva, corresponding to the penis

Estrogens

Group of hormones that stimulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics and produces an environment suitable for fertilization, implantation, and growth of an embryo

Progesterone

Female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta


Promotes changes in the uterus and breasts during reproductive cycle

Menarche

First menstrual period

Menses

Shedding of blood and tissue from the uterine lining at the end of a female reproductive cycle

Menopause

Cessation of the female reproductive cycle

Corpus Luteum

Structure that forms from the tissues of a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes female hormones

Areola

Pigmented region surrounding the nipple of the mammary gland or breast

Alveolar Duct

Fine tube that conducts inhaled air to an air sac of the lungs

Mammary Glands

Located in subcutaneous tissue of breasts


Secrete milk following pregnancy

Sertoli Cells

Sustentacular Cells


Supporting cells of the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules

Spermatogonia

Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells in the male embryo

Corpora Cavernosa

Two columns of erectile tissue that is dorsally located in the shaft of the penis

Corpus Spongiosum

Single column of rectile tissue found in the shaft of the penis that is ventrally located

Ovarian Ligament

Lower end of the ovary attaches it to the uterus


Rounded, cordlike thickening of the broad ligament

Suspensory Ligament

Small fold of peritoneum


Holds the ovary at its upper end

Primary Oocytes

Developed oogonia

Secondary Oocytes

Formed when a primary oocyte divides


Large section of the cytoplasm

Secondary Follicle

Primary oocyte is pressed to one side a a follicle thus creating the secondary follicle that is about 0.2 millimeter in diameter

Infundibulum

Funnel-shaped formed near each ovary formed by a uterine tube expansion


Partially encircles the ovary medially

Fimbriae

Irregular, branched extensions that line the infundibulum

Round Ligament

Flattened band of tissue within the broad ligament


Connects the upper end of the uterus to the anterior pelvic wall

Body

Upper two-thirds of the uterus

Fundus

Dome shaped top of the uterus

Cervix

Lower one-third, or neck, of uterus


Tubular section that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina

Labia Majora

Enclose a protect the other external reproductive organs

Mons Pubis

Rounded elevation of adipose tissue formed from the merging of labia

Labium Minora

Flattened longitudinal folds between the labia majora

Corpus Albicans

Remnant of corpus luteum after degeneration