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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Bean shaped organ

12 cm long by 6 cm wide, covered by a capsule

Lie retroperitoneally, encased in fat

Left kidney 1-2 cm superior to the right

Superior borders at T12, end at L3

Renal Pelvis

Formed by the expanded superior end of the ureter

Funnel-shaped sac

Located inside the renal sinus

-cavity in a kidney that channels urine to the ureter

Renal Medulla

Inner part of kidney

Renal Cortex

Outer part of kidney

Renal Capsule

Fibrous membrane that surrounds the cortex and helps maintain the shape of the kidney

Renal Columns

Tissue in the medulla between the renal pyramids

Renal Pyramids

Conical masses of tissue that make up the renal medulla


Functional unit of a kidney, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule

Functions of Kidneys

-Regulate volume, composition and pH of body fluids (balances blood plasma)

-removes metabolic waste from blood

-secrete erythropoietin

-secrete renin

-regulate Ca++ absorption by activating vitamin D (in the presence of PTH)


Red blood cell formation


Regulates blood pressure

Released if blood pressure decreases or Na ions in blood decrease

Increases blood pressure

Renal Arteries

Arise from the abdominal aorta

Transport a large volume of blood to the kidneys

15 to 30 percent of total cardiac output (blood)

Interlobar Arteries

Branches of the renal Artery that pass between the renal pyramids

Arcuate Arteries

Incomplete arches that are branches of the interlobar arteries

Interlobular Arteries

Cortical Radiate Arteries

Branches of arcuate arteries

Afferent Arterioles

Branches of interlobular arteries

Lead to the nephrons


Abdominal Aorta

Renal Arteries

Interlobar Arteries

Arcuate Arteries

Interlobular Arteries

Afferent Arterioles


Renal Corpuscle

Consists of glomerulus and glomerular capsule


Tangled cluster of blood capillaries

Glomerular Capsule

Bowman's Capsule

Thin-walled, saclike structure

Renal Tubule

Part of a nephron that extends from the renal corpuscle to the collecting duct


Highly modified epithelial cells of the visceral layer

Nephron Loop

Hoop of Henle

Structure of Nephron

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (coiled portion of renal tunule)

Nephron Loop

-descending limb

-ascending limb

Distal Convoluted Tubule

Collecting Duct

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Contact between distal convoluted tubule and afferent arteriole

Group of cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole in the kidney that pays a role in the control of renin secretion

Macula Densa

Structure of epithelial cells of the ascending limb of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

Tall and densely packed

Juxtaglomerular Cells

Smooth muscle cells of arterioles

Regulates secretion of renin

Cortical Nephron

Nephron with a corpuscle in the renal cortex

80% of nephrons

Juxatamedullary Nephron

Nephron with its corpuscle near the renal medulla

20% of nephrons

Dip into medulla

Regulate water balance

Vasa Recta

Branch of the peritubular capillary that receives blood from the efferent arterioles of juxatamedullary nephrons

Glomerular Filtration

Begining of urine formation

Glomerular capillaries filter plasma

Substances move from blood to glomerular capsule

Tubular Reabsorption

Substances move from renal tubules into blood of peritubular capillaries

Glucose, water, urea, proteins, creatine

Returns substances to capillaries

Controlled by tubular epithelium

Active and passive transport

Tubular Secretion

Substances move from blood of peritubular capillaries into renal tubules

Drugs and ions

Substances move from capillaries into tubules

Excreted as urine

Active and passive transport


Small opening in the capillary endothelium into capsule that glomerular filtration passes through

Water, nutrients, ions

Net Filtration Pressure

Force favoring filtration (glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure)


Forces opposing filtration (capsular hydrostatic pressure and glomerular capillary osmotic pressure)

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Directly proportional to the net filtration pressure

Mainly due to hydrostatic pressure

Average amounts over a 4 hour period (180 liters) vs urine production (.6 -2.5 liters)


Controls glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under normal circumstances

Keeps it constant


Hormone that causes K+ or H+ to be secreted while Na+ is reabsorbed

In distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts


Liver creates Angiotensinogen

Renin from kidney turns it into Angiotensin I

Angiotensin-converting enzyme from lung capillaries turns it into Angiotensin II


Increase Aldosterone & ADH

Increased thirst


Product of amino acid catabolism in the liver

Plasma concentration reflects the amount of protein in diet

Enters renal tubules through glomerular filtration

80% reabsorbed (the rest is excreted))


From pituitary gland

DC and collecting duct become permeable to water

Water is reabsorbed by osmosis into hypertonic medullary

Urine becomes concentrated, volume decreases

Uric Acid

Product of nucleic acid metabolism (DNA & RNA)

enters renal tubules through glomerular filtration

100% reabsorbed

10% secreted then excreted

Urine Composition

95% water

Uric Acid

Amino Acids


Normal pH 4.6-8.0

Elimination of Urine


Collecting Ducts

Renal Papillae

Minor Calyx

Major Calyx


Urinary Bladder



Muscular tube that carries urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder

Extend downward posterior to the parietal peritoneum

Join urinary bladder from below

Urinary Bladders

Muscular organ

Composed of transitional epithelium

Detrusor Muscle

Muscular wall of the urinary bladder

Prostate Gland

Gland surrounding the male urethra below the urinary bladder that secretes into semen prior to ejaculation

Internal Urethral Sphincter


Smooth muscle

External Urethral Sphincter


Skeletal muscle

Male Urethra





Process of voiding urine

-Bladder distends and stretch receptors stimulated

-Micturition center activated in sacral portion of spinal cord

-Parasympathetic nerve impulses cause detrusor muscle to contract

-need to urinate is sensed

-voluntary contraction of external urethral sphincter prevents urination

-conscious control of micturition by brainstem and cerebral cortex inhibits the micturition reflex

-when decision is made to urinate, external urethral sphincter relaxes, detrusor muscle contracts, and urine is expelled


Inside cells

More K+ and phosphate ions (PO4-3)


Outside cell

Interstitial and plasma

More Na+, Cl-, and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)


Includes cerebrospinal fluid of the central nervous system, aqueous and vitreous humors of the eyes, Synovial fluid of the joints, serous fluid in the body cavities, and fluid secretions of the exorcine glands


Stimulated by increase in osmotic pressure as the body loses water

Located in the thirst center


Electrolytes that ionize on water and release hydrogen ions


Substances that combine with hydrogen ions

Acid-Base Balance

Regulation of hydrogen ions in body fluids

Acid-Base Buffer

Bicarbonate, Phosphate, Protein

Take up hydrogen ions and stabilize pH

Fast but temporary

Respiratory Mechanism

Excretion of carbon dioxide (within minutes)

Eliminates hydrogen ions

Renal Mechanism

Excretion of hydrogen ions (1-3 days)

Eliminates hydrogen ions from system


Behind the peritoneum

Meiosis I

Seperates replicated homologous chromosome pairs


Rod like structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell's nucleus during mitosis


One longitudinal half of a replicated chromosome

Meiosis II

Similar to mitosis


Two sets of chromosomes



One set of chromosomes



Male sex cells



Female sex cells

Egg Cells

Crossing Over

Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis

Traits mixed by exchanging parts of the chromatids


Primary sex organs

Testes and ovaries


Divides the testes into lobules

Seminiferous Tubules

Tubule within the testes where sperm cells form

Interstitial Cells

Produce androgen

Hormone secreting cell between the seminiferous tubules of the testes


Male sex hormone such as testosterone


Sperm cell production


Undifferentiated spermatogenic cell in the outer part of a seminiferous tubule

Primary Spermatocyte

Produced from mitosis

Secondary Spermatocyte

Produced from meiosis I


Produced from meiosis II


Protective covering of sperm cell

Forms head of sperm cell with nucleus


Middle section of the sperm cell between the head and tail

Contains mitochondria



End of sperm cell

Used to move cell


Highly coiled tubule that leads from the seminiferous tubules of the testis to the ductus deferens

Outside testes

Storage site for sperm

Promotes maturation of sperm cells

Secrete glycogen

Vas Deferens

Ductus Deferens

Muscular tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra of the male reproductive tract

Ends in ampulla

Seminal Vesicles

One of a pair of pouches that adds fructose and prostaglandins to sperm as semen forms

Secretes alkaline fluid

Empties into ejaculatory duct

Ejaculatory Ducts

Tube, formed by the joining of the ductus deferens and the tube from the seminal vesicle, that transports sperm to the urethra

Bulbourethral Gland

Gland that secretes a viscous fluid into the male urethra during sexual excitement

Cowper's Gland

Inferior to the prostate gland


Expansion at the end of each semicircular canal that houses a crista ampullaris

Spermatic Cord

Structure consisting of blood vessels, nerves, the ductus deferens, and other vessels extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis


Group of compounds that have powerful, hormonelike effects


Fluid ejected during ejaculation

-5% sperm cells

-secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands



Slightly alkaline (pH 7.5)


Movement of semen out of urethra


Movement of semen into the urethra

(Sympathetic Impulses to smooth muscles of glands and ducts)


Pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue

Dartos Muscle

Smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue

Contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum


Male external reproductive organ through which the urethra passes

Glans Penis

Enlarged mass of corpus spongiosum at the end of the penis


Foreskin of the penis that surrounds the glans penis


During stimulation, parasympathetic nerve impulses from sacral cord release nitric oxide which dilated arteries leading to penis

Blood accumulates in erectile tissues and erection occurs

Veins are compressed


Culmination of sexual stimulation

Accompanied by emission and ejaculation


Acts on interstitial cells (androgens)

Produced by pituitary gland


Initiates spermatogenesis

Produced by pituitary gland


Male sex hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes

Stimulates embryonic development of reproductive organs

Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics


Primary sex organs of females

Egg cell-producing organ

Broad Ligament

Largest ligament attached to tubes and uterus


Differentiation of an egg cell

Egg formation

Follicular Cells

Ovarian cells that surround a developing egg cell and secrete female sex hormone

Polar Body

Small, nonfunctional cell that is product of meiosis in the female

Primordial Follicle

Egg enclosed by a single layer of cells in the ovary


Cell produced by the fusion of an egg and sperm

Fertilized egg cell


Release of an egg cell for a mature ovarian follicle

Uterine Tubes

Oviducts, fallopian tubes

Tube that extends from the uterus on each side toward an ovary and transport sex cells

Place of fertilization

Lined by simple columnar epithelium, cilia, mucous


Hollow muscular organ in the pelvis of a female where a fetus develops


Tubular organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule of the female reproductive tract

Surrounds cervix

Receives penis during intercourse

Birth canal for offspring


Union of an egg cell and and a sperm cell

Endometrium of Uterine Wall

Columnar epithelium

Myometrium of Uterine Wall

Longitudinal, circular, spiral smooth muscle

Perimetrium of Uterine Wall



Small erectile organ in the anterior vulva, corresponding to the penis


Group of hormones that stimulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics and produces an environment suitable for fertilization, implantation, and growth of an embryo


Female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta

Promotes changes in the uterus and breasts during reproductive cycle


First menstrual period


Shedding of blood and tissue from the uterine lining at the end of a female reproductive cycle


Cessation of the female reproductive cycle

Corpus Luteum

Structure that forms from the tissues of a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes female hormones


Pigmented region surrounding the nipple of the mammary gland or breast

Alveolar Duct

Fine tube that conducts inhaled air to an air sac of the lungs

Mammary Glands

Located in subcutaneous tissue of breasts

Secrete milk following pregnancy

Sertoli Cells

Sustentacular Cells

Supporting cells of the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules


Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells in the male embryo

Corpora Cavernosa

Two columns of erectile tissue that is dorsally located in the shaft of the penis

Corpus Spongiosum

Single column of rectile tissue found in the shaft of the penis that is ventrally located

Ovarian Ligament

Lower end of the ovary attaches it to the uterus

Rounded, cordlike thickening of the broad ligament

Suspensory Ligament

Small fold of peritoneum

Holds the ovary at its upper end

Primary Oocytes

Developed oogonia

Secondary Oocytes

Formed when a primary oocyte divides

Large section of the cytoplasm

Secondary Follicle

Primary oocyte is pressed to one side a a follicle thus creating the secondary follicle that is about 0.2 millimeter in diameter


Funnel-shaped formed near each ovary formed by a uterine tube expansion

Partially encircles the ovary medially


Irregular, branched extensions that line the infundibulum

Round Ligament

Flattened band of tissue within the broad ligament

Connects the upper end of the uterus to the anterior pelvic wall


Upper two-thirds of the uterus


Dome shaped top of the uterus


Lower one-third, or neck, of uterus

Tubular section that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina

Labia Majora

Enclose a protect the other external reproductive organs

Mons Pubis

Rounded elevation of adipose tissue formed from the merging of labia

Labium Minora

Flattened longitudinal folds between the labia majora

Corpus Albicans

Remnant of corpus luteum after degeneration