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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
WHEN does the Nomination Process take place?
January-June of the election year
The Caucus
voters in each electoral district show up at a specific time and place for an open meeting to express their views on the Presidential nomination

[Only 10-12 states do this]
The Primary
voters simply cast their vote to select their states' presidential nomination
The National Convention
-The official launching point of the general election campaign lasting from the summer to the November election

-Held in the summer of the election year by both the Republicans and Democrats

-Attended by each states' delegates who support the primary or caucuses winner in their state...
The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)
-Candidates must reveal who has contributed to the campaign and exactly how much money was spent

-individual limits of $2,500 to a candidate per election or $30,800 per party
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
established by FECA

-administers & enforces the campaign finance laws

-governed by bipartisan board of 3 Republicans & 3 Democrats
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
Ended "soft money" contributions to political parties.
What are the 4 LOOPHOLES to get around FECA and BCRA?
-527 Groups
-Citizens United & Federal Election Commission
-501(c) Groups
-PACs and Super PACs
527 Groups
-Not subject to campaign contribution limitations AS LONG AS advertising DOES NOT SPECIFICALLY ENDORSE A CANDIDATE
Where does "527 Groups" get it's name from?
Section 527 of the tax code saying that contributions must be reported to the IRS
Citizens United vs Federal Election Commission
5-4 ruling struck down the portion of BCRA that limited contributions from corporations and unions

*supreme court thought that limiting them would be a violation of freedom of speech
501(c) Groups
-exempt from reporting who makes campaign donations

-no set limit for contributions

-only limit: they can only spend 1/2 their funds on political activities
(Political Action Committees)
Can only accept $5,000 a year and donate only $5,000 per candidate

*has a limit since it gives money DIRECTLY to candidate
Super PACs
Can accept unlimited amounts of $$$ and run their own Independent advertising as long as it DOES NOT DIRECTLY CONTRIBUTE TO THE CANDIDATE
Selective Perception
When people's beliefs guide what they pay attention to and how the interpret campaigns
Voter Turnout
American voter turnout is less than every other western democracy

59% in 2012 (presidential & congress)

40% in 2010 (only congressional)
What are the 2 reasons that people vote?
Political Efficacy
Civic Duty
Political Efficacy
The idea that your vote can truly make a difference
Civic Duty
The idea that citizen's participation in elections is essential for a democracy
What makes people not vote?
-high time costs
-high information costs
-too many elections
-weekday voting without National Holiday
-extra step of regusterub before voting
How do people vote? (3ways)
-Party identification
-prospective voting
-retrospective voting
prospective voting
voting on the basis of the voters policy preferences and where the candidate stand on the same issues (policy voting)
retrospective voting
voting on the basis of past performances of the candidate
Due to the Electoral College, which states do presidential candidates focus on the most?
The most populated states with slim political margins

*populated Swing states
Mandate Theory of Elections
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics.
Campaign Contributions
donations that are made directly to a candidate or a party and that must be reported to the FEC.
Independent Expenditures
expenses on behalf of a political messages that are made by groups that are uncoordinated with any candidate's campaign
Party Platform
a political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years...
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
McGovern-Fraser Commission
a commission formed at the 1968 democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation

(party leaders could no longer hand-pick the convention delegates virtually in secret)
15th Amendment
grants suffrage to citizens, regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
16th Amendment
allows Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the stated or basing it on the U.S. Census
26th Amendment
grants suffrage to the U.S. citizens of 18 years or older
a policy-making process that produces decisions that are only marginally different from past practice
Hydrolic Theory
The theory that something will always slip through the cracks/find a loophole
Motor Voter Act
an attempt to increase voter turnout

made it easier for Americans to get registered to vote (when getting their license)

didn't work at all. voter turnout stayed the same

Soft money
(Money Unaccounted For)
a contribution to a political party that is not accounted as going to a particular candidate, thus avoiding various legal limitations