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84 Cards in this Set

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science of body structure


science of body function


the smallest unit of matter


2 or more atoms joined together


molecules combine, and also is the basic structural and functional units of an organism.

tissue level

tissues are groups of cells ad the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function

organ level

different types of tissues are joined together to form an organ

system level

consists of related organs with a common function


any living individual


is the sum of all the chemical process that occur in the body


the breakdown of complex chemical substances into smaller components.


the building up of complex chemical substances


the body's ability to detect and respond to changes




is the increase in body size


is the development of a cell from an unspecialized state to a specialized state


the formation of new cells


the balance in the bodys internal environment

intracellular fluid

fluid within the cell

extracellular fluid

fluid outside the cell

interstitial fluid

the ecf that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissue

Blood plasma

elf within blood vessels


within lymphatic vessels

cerebrospinal fluid

ecf around the brain and spinal cord

synovial fluid

ecf in the joints

aqueous humor

ecf of the eye

feedback system

is a cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, changed, evaluated.


is a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled conditioned and sends input to a control center

control center

the brain, receives input from receptor then puts out the effector


the body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response

negative feedback

reverse a change in a controlled condition

positive feedback

strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the bodys controlled condition ( contractions, labor)


any abnormality of structure or function


is a more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms


subjective changes in the body that are not apparent to the observer.

example, headache, nausea, anxiety


objective changes that can be observed


the science that deals with why, when, where diseases occur and how they are transmitted


is the science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease

anatomical postion

standrad position


lying face down


the body lying face up


consists of skull and face


supports the head and attaches it to the trunk


consists of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis

sagittal plane

is a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides

midsagittal plane

divide an organ right and left sides, midline


divides the body into anterior and posterior


divides the body or an organ into superior and inferior portions

oblique plan

passes through the body or an organ at an oblique angle

cranial cavity

contains the brain, formed by cranial bones

vertebral cavity

formed by the vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves

thoracic cavity

chest cavity, contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum, formed by the ribs the sternum, and the thoracic portion

pleural cavity

each surrounds a lung

pericardial cavity

a fluid space that surrounds the heart


it is between the lungs, extending from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm

adominopelvic cavity

extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal muscular wall.

abdominal cavity

contains the stomach, spleen, liver , gallbladder, small and large intestine.

pelvic cavity

contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and interal organs for the reproductive system


organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities


a thin, pliable issue that covers, lines, partitions or connects structure

serous membrane

covers the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and also lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen

parietal layer

a thin epithelium that lines the walls of cavities

visceral layer

a thin epithelium that covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities


the serous membrane of the pleural cavities

visceral pleura

clings to the lungs

parietal pleura

lines the chest wall


the serous membrane of pericardial cavity

visceral pericardium

covers the surface of the heart

parietal pericardium

lines the chest wall

pericardial cavity

between the heart and lungs


the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity

visceral peritoneum

covers the abdominal viscera

parietal peritoneum

lines the abdominal wall

integumentary system


Skin, hair, finger nails, toe nails

functions: protects body, helps regulate body temperature

skeletal system


bones and Joints of the body and their associated cartilages


supports and protects the body, provides surface area for muscle attachments , aids body movements

Muscular system


Skeletal muscle tissue- muscle usually attached to bones


Participates in body movements, such as walking, posture

nervous system


Brain, spinal, cord, nerves, special sense organs (ears and eyes)

Functions: generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activites, detects changes in bodys internal and external environments, interprets changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions

endocrine system

Components: hormone producing glands, pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glans, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries, and testes

function: regulate body activities by releasing hormones

cardiovascular system

Components: blood, heart, and blood vessels

functions: heart pumps blood through blood vessels, blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids, blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels

Lymphatic system

Components: Lymphatic fluid, vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils, and cells that carry out immune responses

Functions: returns proteins and fluid to blood, carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites maturation and proliferation or B cells and T cells that protect against disease causing microbes

respiratory system

components: lungs, pharynx ( throat), larynx ( voice box), trachea (wind pipe), and bronchial tubes leading into and out of lungs

Function: transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air, helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids, air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords

digestive system

Components: organ of GI tract, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, salivary glans a, liver, gallbladder and pancreas

Functions: achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid wastes

urinary system

Components: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

Function: produces, stores, and eliminates urine, wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood, helps regulate production of red blood cells

reproductive system

Components: Gonads, (testes and ovaries) and associated organs, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands in females and epididymides, ductus, deferns, seminal vesiceles, prostate and penis

Function: gonads produce gametes, that unite to form a new organism