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24 Cards in this Set

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The smallest living unit; an organized unit that can survive and reproduce on its own, given suitable DNA instructions and environmental resources--notably energy and raw materials
Of cells, an internal, membranebounded sac or compartment having one or more specific, specialized metabolic functions.
Fluid filled organelle that stores amino acids, sugars, ions, and toxic wastes.
cytomembrane system
Organelles functioning as a system to modify, package, and distribute newly formed proteins and lipids. Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Bodies, lysosomes, and a variety of vesicles are its components.
Of eukaryotic cells, the organelle that specializes in formation of ATP; the second and third stages of aerobic respiration, and oxygen-requiring pathway , occur only in mitochondria.
rough endoplasmic recticulum
In rough ER many new polypeptide chains acquire specialized side chains.
The main organelle of intracellular digestion, with enzymes that can break down nearly all polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleis acids, and some lipids.
In the nucleus of a nondividing cell, a site where the protein and RNA subunits of ribosomes are assembled.
Thin cytoskeletal element of two twisted polypeptidw chains;it has roles in cell movement, especially at the cell surface, and in producing and maintaining cell shapes.
gogli body
Organelle of lipis assembly, polypeptide chain modification, and packaging of both in vesicles for export and for transport to locations in the cytoplasm
Of eukaryotes, a DNA molecule with many associated protiens. Of prokaryotes, a DNA molecule without a comparable profusion of proteins.
Transport of a sucstance into a cell by a vesicle, the membrane of which is a patch of plasma membrane that forms around the substance and sinks into the cytoplasm.
A plant cell junction; a membrane-lined channel across walls of adjacent cells that connect their cytoplasm.
A hollow, cylindrical cytoskeletal element, consisting mainly of tubulin, with roles in cell shape, motion, and growth and in the struture of cilia and flagella.
smooth endoplasmic recticulum
An organelle that begins at the nucleus and curves through the cytoplasm. In rough ER, many new polypeptide chains acquire specialized side chains. Smooth ER is a site of lipid synthesis.
tight junctions
Link the cells of wpithelial tissues, which line the body's outer surface and internal cavaties and organs.
In all cells, the structure at which amino acids are strung together in specified sequence to form the polypeptide chains of proteins. An intact ribosome consists of two subunits, each composed of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules.
lipid bilayer
Structural basis of all cell membranes, with two layers of mostly phospholipid molecules. The hydrophobic tails of the molecules are sandwiched in between the hydrophilic heads, which are dissolved in the fluids that bathes them.
Total collection of all DNA molecules and their associated proteins in the nucleus.
Transport of a substance out of a cell by means of a vesicle, the membrane of which fuses with the plasma membrane, so that the vesicle's contents are released outside.
gap junctions
Link the cytoplasm of neighboring cells, are open channels for the rapid flow of signals and substances.
Of atoms, the central core of one or more positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. In eukaryotic cells, a membraneous organell the physically isolates and organizes DNA out of the way of cytoplasmic machinery.
An organelle that specializes in photosynthesis in plants and photosynthetic protistans.
plasma membrane
Of cells, the outermost membranous boundary between cytoplasm and external fluid bathing the cell. Its lipid bilayer is the basic structural part of the mambrane;diverse proteins embedded in the bilayer or attached to its surfaces carry out most functions, such as transport and reception of extracellular signals.