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79 Cards in this Set

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Genetic drift

Change in gene frequency due to random chance

Natural selection

The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.

Gene flow

Transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another.

Biocultural

Evolutionary change and adaptation through both somatic (biological) and extrasomatic (material/cultural) means.

Sexual dimorphism

Systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species.

Speciation

Formation of new species

Speciation

Formation of new species

Biological species concept

Species consists of populations of organisms that can reproduce with one another and that are reproductively isolated from other populations.

Speciation

Formation of new species

Biological species concept

Species consists of populations of organisms that can reproduce with one another and that are reproductively isolated from other populations.

Ecological species concept

A species is a set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources (niche) in the environment.

Speciation

Formation of new species

Biological species concept

Species consists of populations of organisms that can reproduce with one another and that are reproductively isolated from other populations.

Ecological species concept

A species is a set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources (niche) in the environment.

Analogy

Functionally similar features arising independently through convergent evolution.

Homology

A feature shared between species that was also present in their common ancestor.

Parsimony

The principle that things behave or are connected in the most economical or simplest way.

Broca's area

Region of the brain concerned with the production of speech located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe.

Molecular clock

The average rate at which a species genome accumulates mutations, used to measure evolutionary divergence.

Molecular clock

The average rate at which a species genome accumulates mutations, used to measure evolutionary divergence.

Wernicke's area

Region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language, located in the cortex of the dominant temporal lobe.

Estrus

Recurring period of sexual receptivity and fertility in many female mammals (ie. In heat)

Directional selection

A single extreme phenotype is favoured.

Stabilising selection

Intermediate phenotype is favoured over the extreme traits.

Disruptive selection

Extreme phenotypes are favoured over the intermediate.

Frequency-dependent selection

The fitness of phenotype is dependent on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population.

Reproductive isolation

Mechanisms which prevent members of different species from mating (pre-zygotic) or producing viable offspring (post-zygotic)

Prognathic

Projecting lower jaw/chin

Orthognatic

Flat facial profile.

Bergmann's rule

In widely distributed mammalian species, populations in colder environments will tend to be heavier than those in warmer climates.

Bergmann's rule

In widely distributed mammalian species, populations in colder environments will tend to be heavier than those in warmer climates.

Allen's rule

Populations in colder climates will have shorter appendages than those in warmer climates.

Positive frequency-dependent selection

Most common type is fittest --> decreases genetic variation

Positive frequency-dependent selection

Most common type is fittest --> decreases genetic variation

Negative frequency-dependent selection

Least common type is fittest --> increase genetic variation

Bipedalism changes to the skeleton

Limb proportions, bicondylar angle, foot morphology, position of foramen magnum, s shape vertebral column, pelvis shape

Innominate bone is made up of

The ilium, ischium and pubis.

Ratcheting

A steady and irreversible process. Accumulation of traits shared across population, eg by evolution of language.

Hypothesis of language origin

Social role: gossip, social bonds, grooming.


Manual role: teaching passing knowledge about a tool.

The species that survive

Is the one most responsive to change.

Zoonosis

A disease that can be transmitted to humans from animals.

Zoonosis

A disease that can be transmitted to humans from animals.

Antigenic shift

Two or more different strains of a virus combine to form a new virus strain having the possibility of causing an epidemic. The example usually refer to influenza such as swine flu.

Epidemiology

Study of the determinants, dynamics and distribution of disease. Prevalence of diseases change due to new human-environment interaction.

First epidemiological transtion

12,000-10,000ya Neolithic transition.


Food production: agriculture and domestication assoc. with sedentism. Increased zoonosis, contact with waste and reliance on stable crops = rise of infectious diseases eg measles, smallpox, influenza.

Second epidemiological transition

300-200ya


Industrialisation: increased in longevity through healthcare but also increase in chronic and degenerative diseases assoc. w/t age. Urbanisation and industrialisation of food supply. = obesity, heart disease, diabetes.

Thrifty genotype hypothesis

Link b/w genotype and diabetes proposed by James Neel. Hunter gatherers experienced periods of food scarcity. Release of insulin to quickly convert glucose to storable fat (for these future periods of scarcity) was evolutionary advantage. Evolutionary mismatch detrimental today when food always available develop insulin resistance. Mismatch between genes and environment.

Thrifty phenotype hypothesis

Phenotype are plastic and adapt. Intrauterine environment can shape suite of responses. Mismatch between environment during gestation and later life. Eg Dutch hunger winter famine during pregnancy. Nutrient poor maternal environ vs. nutrient rich environ. Ex. Of fetal programming.

Collected food

Collected from environment and eaten.

Collected food

Collected from environment and eaten.

Extracted food

Inanimate, but protected; require processing prior to consumption eg. Nuts, tubers, honey.

Collected food

Collected from environment and eaten.

Extracted food

Inanimate, but protected; require processing prior to consumption eg. Nuts, tubers, honey.

Hunted foods

Things that run away; must be caught and trapped; often processed prior to consumption.

Complex foraging

Collected foods, extracted foods, hunted foods.

Multiregional evolution model

Continuity between lineages of homo until present. Origin out of Africa 1.8mya with h. erectus but gene flow and cultural transmission still happened.

Multiregional evolution model

Continuity between lineages of homo until present. Origin out of Africa 1.8mya with h. erectus but gene flow and cultural transmission still happened.

Recent African origin model

Replacement of existing hominins in Europe by population out of Africa 90-60,000ya. No gene flow.

Multiregional evolution model

Continuity between lineages of homo until present. Origin out of Africa 1.8mya with h. erectus but gene flow and cultural transmission still happened.

Recent African origin model

Replacement of existing hominins in Europe by population out of Africa 90-60,000ya. No gene flow.

Assimilation model

Combines the multiregional and recent African origin models.

Oldowan

Pebble tools or choppers. Flaked cobbles. Flakes utilised as well.

Acheulean

Bifacial handaxes and cleavers. Multi use.

Levallois technique

Prepared core technology. A flint is trimmed so that a flake of predetermined size and shape can be struck from it.

Mousterian

Flake technology incorporating levallois technique.

Neanderthal features

Low forehead, large arching browridges, projecting midface, lack of chin, occipital bun, large cranial capacity.

Evolution is...

Descent of different species from a common ancestor.


Changes in gene frequency over generations.

Evolution is...

Descent of different species from a common ancestor.


Changes in gene frequency over generations.

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem

Under certain conditions the frequencies of alleles will remain constant.


No mutation, no natural selection, no gene flow, large population, mating is random.

Bottleneck

An event in which only a fraction of the population survives to reproduce.

Founder effect

A small populations becomes isolated from the larger population and establishes a separate population. Eg: a storm washes a few animals to a new island.

Problems defining species in fossil record

Rarity of fossils, small sample size. Can't test if they would produce fertile offsprings. Can't find specific moment in time when species A became species B.

Phylogeny

A form of taxonomy that reflects evolutionary descent.

Genotype

The total of all the genes that person possess on their chromosomes.

Genotype

The total of all the genes that person possess on their chromosomes.

Phenotype

The observable effects of the alleles an individual possesses. Phenotype= genotype + environ.

Mosaic evolution

Evolution of characters at various rates both within and between species.

Mosaic evolution

Evolution of characters at various rates both within and between species.

Obstetrical dilemma

Two conflicting evolutionary trend of decrease of pelvis shape and size for bipedalism and increase of cranium size for intelligence