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34 Cards in this Set

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BONES OF THE ANKLE: 
ANTERIOR & LATERAL VIEW

BONES OF THE ANKLE:


ANTERIOR & LATERAL VIEW



1. talus within mortise


2. talocural articulation


3. talus shape


4. subtalar joint

1. TALUS WITHIN MORTISE

- talus bone sits within mortise


- mortise = space framed by distal aspect of tibia, medial malleolus, lateral, and malleolus

2. TALOCURAL ARTICULATION

- articulation b.t the talus & distal aspect of tibia




DORSIFLEXION & PLANTARFLEXION


occurs within the saggital plane about the frontal axis.




INTERNAL & EXTERNAL ROTATION


occurs within the transverse plane about the longitudinal axis.



3. TALUS SHAPE

- wedge shaped


- anterior aspect = broad


- posterior aspect = tapered


- shape allows internal + external rotation while in plantarflexed position

4. SUBTALAR JOINT

- between calcaneous & talus




INVERSION & EVERSION


occurs within the frontal plane about the


sagittal axis.

LATERAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

1. anterior tibio-fibular ligament


2. anterior talo-fibular ligament


3. calcaneal-fibular ligament


4. posterior talo-fibular ligament

1. ANTERIOR TIBIO-FIBULAR LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive spread within the frontal plane b.t tibia & fibula bones




- walking: tibia/fibula spread a lil


- if injured they shift too much = high ankle sprain

2. ANTERIOR TALO-FIBULAR LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive anterior displacement of talus relative to fibula




*AKA prevents foot from shifting too far forward on lower leg

3. CALCANEAL-FIBULAR LIGAMENT

- prevents foot from excessive inversion within frontal plane about sagittal axis




- happens when you "roll" your ankle

4. POSTERIOR TALO-FIBULAR LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive posterior translation of talus relative to fibula




*AKA prevents foot from shifting too far backwards on lower leg

LATERAL & MEDIAL MALLEOLUS

- lateral extends more distal than medial


- so lateral is father down talus


- so magnitude of inversion > eversion

LATERAL LOWER LEG MUSCLES

1. peroneous longus muscle


2. peroneous brevis muscle

1. PERONEOUS LONGUS

FUNCTION:


- primarily plantarflexion of foot


- eversion of foot




WHERE:


- lateral compartment of lower leg




INNVERVATED BY:


- superficial fibular nerve


- L5, S1



2. PERONEOUS BREVIS

FUNCTION:


- plantarflexion of foot


- eversion of foot




WHERE:


- lateral compartment of lower leg




INNVERVATED BY:


- superficial fibular nerve


- L5, S1

MEDIAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

the deltoid ligament:


1. tibio-navicular


2. anterior tibio-talar


3. tibio-calcaneal


4. posterior tibio-talar

1. tib-navic
2. tib-calc
3. ant tibio-tal
4. post tibio-tal

1. tib-navic


2. tib-calc


3. ant tibio-tal


4. post tibio-tal

1. TIBIO-NAVICULAR LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive plantarflexion w. external rotation



"tibio near big toe"

"tibio near big toe"



2. ANTERIOR TIBIO-TALAR LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive anterior translation of talus on tibia



*AKA keeps talus from moving up on leg




- deep to tibio-navicular lig.


- hard to see

switch tal & tib

switch tal & tib

3. TIBIO-CALCANEAL LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive eversion




* AKA keeps sole of foot from facing too far inwards




- very strong

"tibio-calcan-eversion"

"tibio-calcan-eversion"



4. POSTERIOR TIBIO-TALAR LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive posterior translation of talus on tibia




- doesnt stop excess eversion cause that occurs at subtalar j

switch tal & tib

switch tal & tib



ANTERIOR LOWER LEG MUSCLES

1. extensor hallicus longus


2. extensor digitorum longus


3. tibialis anterior



1. EXTENSOR HALLICUS LONGUS

FUNCTION:


- extension of big toe


- dorsiflexion of foot




WHERE:


- anterior compartment of lower leg




INNERVATED BY:


- deep fibular nerve


- L5, S1



2. EXTENSOR DIGITORUM

FUNCTION:


- extension of digits 2-5


- dorsiflexion of foot




WHERE:


- anterior compartment of lower leg




INNERVATED BY:


- deep fibular nerve


- L4, L5, S1

"extends digits"

"extends digits"



3. TIBIALIS ANTERIOR

FUNCTION:


- dorsiflexion of foot


- supination of foot




WHERE:


- anterior compartment of lower leg




INNERVATED BY:


- deep fibular nerve


- L4, L5

4 ARCHES IN FOOT


& FUNCTION

1. medial longitudinal arch


2. lateral longitudinal arch


3. transverse tarsal arch


4. transverse metatarsal arch




- absorb/dissipate ground reaction force that's upwards through body while we stand/walk


- if not it will proceed up leg...


- shin-splints - inflammation

1. MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH

- most noticeable


- runs length of foot


- on medial aspect of foot

"long = length"

2. LATERAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH

- also runs length of foot


- on lateral aspect of foot

"long = length"

3. TRANSVERSE TARSAL ARCH

- anterior to calcaneous


- in tarsal bones of foot


- cuneiforms, navic., cuboid


- runs width of foot

"trans - across tarsal bones"

4. TRANSVERSE METATARSAL ARCH

- in 5 metatarsal bones of foot


- runs width of foot

"meta - 5 bones before tarsals"

LIGAMENTS OF FOOT

1. long plantar ligament

1. LONG PLANTAR LIGAMENT

FUNCTION:


- stabilize medial longitudinal arch


- supports lateral longitudinal arch




WHERE:


- intrinsic muscle!


- originates & inserts on foot

DEEP POSTERIOR MUSCLES OF LOWER LEG

* run medial & under foot




1. flexor digitorum longus


2. flexor hallicus longus


3. tibialis posterior

1. FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

FUNCTION:


- flex digits 2-4


- plantarflexion of foot




WHERE:


- deep posterior compartment of lower leg




INNERVATION BY:



2. FLEXOR HALLICUS LONGUS

FUNCTION:


- flexion of big toe


- plantarflexion of foot




WHERE:


- deep posterior compartment of lower leg




INNERVATION BY:


- tibial nerve


- L5, S1, S2



3. TIBIALIS POSTERIOR

FUNCTION:


- plantarflexion of foot


- pronation of foot




WHERE:


- deep posterior compartment of lower leg




INNERVATION BY:


- tibial nerve


- L4, L5